Chapter 3 Population Composition Class 12 Geography Notes

Chapter 3 Population Composition NCERT Notes for Class 12 Geography will useful in getting  a solid understanding of the various concepts embedded in the chapter. Through the help of Revision Notes you can cover plethora of interesting topics in an engaging way and develop retention capability of every students. NCERT Solutions for Chapter 3 Population Composition will set a good foundation for your future goals.

Chapter 3 Population Composition Class 12 Geography Notes

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Population Composition

Sex Composition

• The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called the Sex Ratio. In some
countries it is calculated by using the formula:
Male Population/Female Population × 1000
or the number of males per thousand females.

• In India, the sex ratio is worked out using the formula:
Female Population/ Male Population × 1000
or the number of females per thousand males.

• In regions where gender discrimination is rampant, the sex ratio is bound to be unfavourable to women. Such areas are those where the practice of female foeticide, female infanticide and domestic violence against women are prevalent.

• On an average, the world population reflects a sex ratio of 102 males per 100 females.

• The highest sex ratio in the world has been recorded in Latvia where there are 85 males per 100 females. In contrast, in Qatar there are 311 males per 100 females.

• The sex ratio is favourable for females in 139 countries of the world and unfavourable for them in the remaining 72 countries listed by the United Nations.

• A deficit of males in the populations of many European countries is attributed to better status of women, and an excessively male-dominated out-migration to different parts of the world in the past.

Age Structure

• Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups.

• A large size of population in the age group of 15- 59 indicates a large working population. A greater proportion of population above 60 years represents an ageing population which requires more expenditure on health care facilities.

Age-Sex Pyramid

• The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of females and males in different age groups.

• A population pyramid is used to show the age-sex structure of the population.

• The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population.

• The left side shows the percentage of males while the right side shows the percentage of women in each age group.

Expanding Populations

• It is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide base and is typical of less developed countries. These have larger populations in lower age groups due to high birth rates. Examples are Nigeria, Bangladesh and Mexico.

Constant Population

• It is bell shaped pyramid and tapered towards the top.

• This shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near constant population. Example is Australia.

Declining Populations

• It has a narrow base and a tapered top showing low birth and death rates.

• The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative. Example is Japan.

Rural Urban Composition

• The division of population into rural and urban is based on the residence. This division is necessary because rural and urban life styles differ from each other in terms of their livelihood and social conditions.

• The criteria for differentiating rural and urban population varies from country to country.

• In Western countries, males outnumber females in rural areas and females outnumber the males in urban areas. In countries like Nepal, Pakistan and India the case is reverse.

• The excess of females in urban areas of U.S.A., Canada and Europe is the result of influx of females from rural areas to avail of the vast job opportunities.

• Shortage of housing, high cost of living, paucity of job opportunities and lack of security in cities, discourage women to migrate from rural to urban areas.


• In India, literacy rate denotes the percentage of population above 7 years of age, who is able to read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic calculations with understanding.

• Level of economic development is both a cause and consequence of literacy.

Occupational Structure

• The working population (i.e. women and men of the age group – 15 to 59) take part in various occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing construction, commercial transport, services, communication and other unclassified services.

• Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining are classified as primary activities manufacturing as secondary, trade, transport, communication and other services as tertiary and the jobs related to research, information technology and developing ideas as quaternary activities.

• If the economy is still in the primitive stages, then the proportion of people engaged in primary activities world be high and if the economy is developed more people are engaged in secondary, tertiary and quaternary sector.
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