NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning And Sustainable Development In Indian Context

Chapter 9 Planning And Sustainable Development In Indian Context NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography will serve as beneficial tool that can be used to recall various questions any time. These NCERT Solutions are prepared as per the accordance of latest CBSE guidelines so you can score maximum marks. Revision Notes for Chapter 9 Planning And Sustainable Development In Indian Context will help you get a deeper understanding of various topics.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning And Sustainable Development In Indian Context

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning And Sustainable Development In Indian Context

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Regional planning relates to :
(a) Development of various sectors of economy.
(b) Area specific approach of development.
(c) Area differences in transportation network.
(d) Development of rural areas.
► (b) Area specific approach of development.

(ii) ITDP refers to which one of the following?
(a) Integrated Tourism Development Programme
(b) Integrated Travel Development Programme
(c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme
(d) Integrated Transport Development Programme
► (c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme

(iii) Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
(a) Agricultural development
(b) Eco-development
(c) Transport development
(d) Colonisation of land
► (b) Eco-development

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region?


The social benefits derived from ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region include tremendous increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage. The female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 65 per cent in 2011. The difference between males and females in literacy level i.e. gender inequality, has also declined.

(ii) Define the concept of sustainable development.


Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development during the present times and pleads for conservation of resources to enable the future generations to use these resources.

(iii) What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?


The introduction of Indira Gandhi Canal brought about a perceptible transformation in the agricultural economy of the region. Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping. The traditional crops sown in the area, gram, bajra and jowar have been replaced by wheat, cotton, groundnut and rice. This transformed its ecology, economy and society.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Write short notes on drought-prone area programme. How does this programme help in the development of dryland agriculture in India?


Drought prone area programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.

Since growing population pressure is forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the drought-prone areas. The other strategies of development of these areas include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level. The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, and human and animal population should be a basic consideration in the strategy of development of drought-prone areas. Broadly, the drought- prone area in India spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karantka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions.

Since the focus of the programme is sustainable development of the entire ecology and provide with the irrigational facilities to the regions, therefore the dryland agriculture gets a boost. The adoption of integrated watershed management and other programmes also contribute towards common property resource, collective farming etc. which increases the size of the cultivable plots, increasing the productivity. With introduction of drought prone area programmes, even the areas in the diyland region were able to avail proper agricultural technology and therefore dryland agriculture had prospects of increased productivity.

(ii) Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.


The ecological sustainability of Indira Gandhi Canal Project has been questioned by various scholars. It is a hard fact that attaining sustainable development in the command area requires major thrust upon the measures to achieve ecological sustainability. Hence, five of the seven measures proposed to promote sustainable development in the command area are meant to restore ecological balance.

• The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy. The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
• In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
• The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
• The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
• The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
• The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
• The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centers and market centers.

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