Confronting Marginalisation Extra Questions Chapter 8 Class 8 Civics

Here you will get Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Civics Extra Questions which is very important for the purpose of understanding the concepts given inside the chapter and prepare for the exams. Extra Questions for Class 8 will helpful in knowing how questions can be framed in the examinations and prepare accordingly.

Confronting Marginalisation Extra Questions Chapter 8 Class 8 Civics

Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs):


1. What did the Safai Karamchari Andolan file a PIL in 2003?

Answer

In 1993, the government passed the employment of Manual Scavenger’s and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act. This law prohibited the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of dry latrines. So, the Safai Karamchari Andolan filed a PIL in 2003.

2. How did the Act support Rathnam?

Answer

The Act supported Rathnam by calling off the age old ritual in which a member of the Dalit community washed the feet of all the priests and then took path in the water used for this on the occasion of a ceremony held once in five years.

3. What did the Supreme Court do on hearing their case in 2005?

Answer

The court directed every department/ministry of the union government and state governments to verify the facts within six months.

4. What do you understand by manual scavenging?

Answer

Manual scavenging refers to the practice of removing human and animal waste/ excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carrying it on the head to disposal grounds some distance away.

5. What did Safai Karamchari complain about in their petition?

Answer

The petitioners complained that manual scavenging still existed and it continued in government undertakings like the railways.

6. What did the marginal groups rely on to protect themselves from continued exploitation by other groups?

Answer

Marginal groups relied on the Constitution of India and the Judiciary System to protect them from continued exploitation by other groups.

7. What is ‘untouchability’, and who were called ‘untouchables’?

Answer

Untouchability is the individual discrimination against certain classes of persons. Dalits are sometimes called Untouchables. Untouchables are regarded as ‘low caste’ and have been marginalized for centuries.

8. How reservations play an important role in providing social justice to Dalits and Adivasis?

Answer

The government’s reservation policies give opportunities to specific groups such as the SCs and STs in order to bring them in the mainstream of society.

Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation Short Answer Questions (SAQs):


1. What is the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights)?

Answer

The central government passed the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006. The Act states that the injustice meted out to the Adivasis must be undone. This Act recognises their right to their homestead, cultivable and grazing land and to non-timber forest produce. It points out that the rights of forest dwellers include conservation of forests and bio-diversity.

2. How does the reservation policy of the government work?

Answer

Governments across India have their own list of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and backward and most backward castes. The central government too has its list. Students applying to educational institutions and those applying for posts in government are expected to furnish proof of their caste or tribe status, in form of caste and tribe certificates. If a particular Dalit caste or a certain tribe is in the government list, then a candidate from that caste or tribe can avail of the benefit of reservation.

3. How did the Dalits assert themselves?

Answer

The Dalits asserted themselves and sort the help of law to fight discrimination
• In the late 1970s and 1980s in parts of South India the Dalits asserted themselves by refusing to perform their so-called caste duties and insisted on being treated equally.
• Adivasi people successfully organised themselves and demanded equal rights, and for their land and resources to be returned to them.
• Dalit groups demanded new laws that would list the various sorts of violence against Dalits and prescribe stringent punishment for those who indulge in them.

4. What is the ‘Reservation Policy’?

Answer

Reservation Policy confirms that a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and state civil services, union and state government departments and in all public and private educational institutions, except in the religious/ linguistic minority educational institutions, for the socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the Scheduled Castes and Tribes who were inadequately represented in these services and institutions.

5. What argument is given to justify the government's reservation policy?

Answer

The argument is that in a society like ours, where for centuries sections of the population have been denied opportunities to learn and work in order to develop new skills or vocations, a democratic government needs to step in and assist these sections.

6. What are the ways in which marginalized communities tried to overcome the discriminations they faced?

Answer

The marginalized communities tried many ways to overcome the discrimination they faced. They are:-
• Religious solace
• Armed struggle
• Self improvement
• Education
• Economic progress

7. What are the seven rights stated in the Indian constitution?

Answer

The seven fundamental rights are:
1. Right to equality
2. Right to freedom
3. Right against exploitation
4. Right to freedom of religion
5. Cultural and educational rights
6. Right to constitutional remedies
7. Right to Life and personal liberty.

8. Mention 4 untouchable practices.

Answer

Some untouchable practices are:
• Segregation in seating and food arrangements in village functions and festivals
• Prohibited from entering into village temples
• Separate burial grounds
• No access to village’s wells and ponds.

Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation Long Answer Questions (LAQs):


1. Mention a few crimes listed in the Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989.

Answer

The Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989 lists several levels of crimes. Some of them are

I. Modes of humiliation
• Force a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe to drink or eat any inedible or obnoxious substance
• Forcibly removes clothes from the person of a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe or parades him or her naked or with painted face or body or commits any similar act which is derogatory to human dignity

II. Actions that deprive Dalits and Adivasis of their possessions
• wrongfully occupies or cultivates any land owned by, or allotted to, a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe or gets the land allotted to him transferred

III. Crimes against Dalit and tribal women
• Assaults or uses force on any woman belonging to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe with intent to dishonour her.

2. Write a note on ‘Manual Scavenging’.

Answer

Manual scavenging means doing the scavenging work by hand. Manual scavenging is the practice of removing human and animal waste or excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carrying it on the head to the disposal grounds some distance away. A manual scavenger is the person who does the job of carrying this filth. This job is mainly done by Dalit women and young girls. Manual scavengers are exposed to subhuman conditions of work and face serious health hazards. They are constantly exposed to infections that affect their eyes, skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. They get very low wages for the work they perform. In 1993, the Government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act. This law prohibits the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of dry latrines.
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