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The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Extra Questions Chapter 9 Class 8 History

Chapter 9 The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Extra Questions for Class 8 History is useful in knowing the important concepts inside the chapter. Class 8 Extra Questions can be used to score more marks in the exams.

The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Extra Questions Chapter 9 Class 8 History

The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs):


1. What was the Arms Act?

Answer

The Arms Act was passed in 1878. The Act disallowed Indians from possessing arms.

2. Under what pretext did the British divide Bengal?

Answer

The British divided Bengal under the pretext of administrative convenience.

3. Who was the Viceroy of India at the time of the partition of Bengal.

Answer

At that time Lord Curzon was the Viceroy of India.

4. Name the three leading members of the Radical group.

Answer

Bepin Chandra Pal, Balgangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai.

5. What role did AO Hume play in the history of India?

Answer

A.O. Hume played an important role in bringing Indians from the various regions together.

6. Name the lawyers who gave up their practices to support the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer

Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali.

7. Who formed the All India Muslim League?

Answer

A group of Muslim landlords and nawabs formed the All India Muslim League at Decca in 1906.

8. What was the Ilbert Bill?

Answer

In 1833, the government introduced the Ilbert Bill, The bill provided for the trial of British or European persons by Indians, and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country.

9. What was the Swadeshi Movement known as in deltaic Andhra?

Answer

In deltaic Andhra the Swadeshi Movement was known as the Vandemataram Movement.

10. Why did Rabindranath Tagore renounce his knighthood? 

Answer

Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood to express the pain and anger of the country following the Jallianwala Bagh atrocities.

11. What does HSRA stand for?

Answer

HSRA stands for Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.

12. Who was Chitta Ranjan Das?

Answer

He was a lawyer from East Bengal and was active in the Non-Cooperation Movement.

13. Who were the leaders of the Khilafat agitation?

Answer

The leaders of the Khilafat agitation were Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

14. Why did Mahatma Gandhi along with other Indians establish the Natal Congress in South Africa?

Answer

To fight against racial discrimination in South Africa.

15. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to break the Salt Law?

Answer

Mahatma Gandhi decided to break the Salt Law because it established the monopoly of the state on the manufacture and sale of salt.

16. What does ‘Punjab wrongs’ refer to?

Answer

It refers to Jallianwalla Bagh massarcre that occurred on 13 April, 1919 in Amritsar on Baishakhi day.

17. Why did the Muslim League announced 16 August 1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’?

Answer

It announced 16 August, 1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’ in support of its demand for Pakistan.

18. On what condition-were the Congress leaders ready to support the British war effort at the time of the Second World War?

Answer

The Congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort on condition that they would declare India’s independence after the war.

The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Short Answer Questions (SAQs):


1. Who was Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan?

Answer

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was also known as Badshah Khan. He was the founder of the Khudai Khidmatgars, a powerful non-violent movement among the Pathans of his province. Badshah Khan was strongly opposed to the Partition of India. He criticised his Congress colleagues for agreeing to the 1947 division. He was also called the Pashtun leader from the North-West Frontier Province.

2. What caused the partition of Bengal in 1905?

Answer

At the time of partition Bengal was the biggest province of British India which comprised Bihar and parts of Orissa. The British argued for dividing Bengal for reasons of administrative convenience. But it was a totally false argument. In fact, the partition of Bengal was closely tied to the interests of British officials and businessmen. The British also wanted to curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and split the Bengali people. It was therefore, instead of removing the non-Bengali areas from the province, they separated East Bengal and merged it with Assam.

3. What was the Khilafat agitation?

Answer

In the year 1920 the British imposed a harsh treaty on the Turkish Sultan, known as Khalifa. It enraged people. Indian Muslims wanted that the Khalifa be allowed to retain control over Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire. The leaders of the Khilafat agitation Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, now wished to start a full-fledged Non-Cooperation Movement. They got support from Mahatma Gandhi who urged the Congress to campaign against “Punjab wrongs’, the Khilafat wrong and demand swaraj.

4. Why was the Simon Commission sent to India? Why did Indians boycott it?

Answer

The British government in England sent a Commission headed by Lord Simon in the year 1927 to decide India’s political future. As the Commission had no Indian representative, it was boycotted by all political groups. When the Commission arrived it met with demonstrations with banners saying ‘Simon Go Back’.

5. How did the First World War change the economic situation in India?

Answer

The First World War completely changed the economic situation in India.
• It led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India. As a result, the government increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.
• Military expenditure and the demands for war supplies increased sharply. This led to a sharp rise in prices which made the life of the common people miserable.
• But it was a good time for the business groups. They reaped lucrative profits from the war. The war created demand for industrial goods such as jute bags, cloth, rails, etc. and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India. So, Indian industries expanded during the war.

6. What were the consequences of the partition of Bengal?

Answer

• The partition of Bengal enraged people all over the country. Both the Moderates and the Radicals in the Congress opposed this action of the British.
• Public meetings and demonstrations began to be organised. Novel methods of mass protest were also developed. They struggled against the partition of Bengal came to be known as Swadeshi Movement. In Bengal this movement was the strongest. In other regions such as in deltaic Andhra the movement was called the Vandemataram Movements.

7. What role did Ambabai play in the Indian freedom struggle?

Answer

Ambabai came from Karnataka. She had been married at age twelve and was widowed at sixteen. Afterwards she began participating in the Indian freedom struggle. She picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops in Udipi. She was arrested, served a sentence and was rearrested. Between prison terms she made powerful speeches, taught spinning and organised prabhat pheris.

8. How did people participate in the Non-Cooperation Movement during 1921-22?

Answer

• During these years, thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges.
• Many lawyers such as Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their practices.
• British titles were surrendered and legislatures boycotted.
• People lit public bonfires of foreign cloth.

The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Long Answer Questions (LAQs):


1. Under what circumstances did Gandhiji initiate the Quit India Movement?

Answer

• In September 1939, the Second World War broke out. The. British government in India needed help from the Indian leaders. The leaders were ready to support the British war effort. But in return they wanted that India be granted independence after the war. The British refused to accept the demand. This enraged the Congress ministries. They all resigned to show their protest.

• Mahatma Gandhi was deeply perturbed. He now decided to initiate a new phase of movement against the British rule in the middle of the Second World War. This movement came to be known as the Quit India Movement. Gandhiji thought that the British must Quit India without further delay. He raised the slogan ‘do or die’ which spread among the common mass very soon. But at the same time he warned the people not to be violent in any condition.

• The British took repressive measures. Gandhiji along with other leaders were sent to jail immediately. But this did not prevent the movement from spreading. It specially attracted peasants and the youth who gave up their studies to join the movement. Communications and symbols of state authority were attacked all over the country. In several areas people set up their own governments.

• The British tried to repress these developments severely. About 90,000 people were arrested and wound 1,000 killed in police firing. But the movement did not go in vain. It brought freedom very close.

2. Give a detailed descriptions of the Non-Cooperation Movement. How people from different parts of took part in this movement?

Answer

The Non-Cooperation Movement against the British started in 1920 which gained momentum through 1921-22. The people of different classes and groups came forward and began interpreting Gandhiji’s call in their own manner. A large mass of people resisted British role non-violently but others’ technique of protest was violent. But in either ease, people linked their movements to local grievances.

• In Kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants organised non- violent campaigns against the highland revenue demand of the British.
• In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed. In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribal and poor peasants protested because the colonial state had restricted their use of forest resources in various ways. They believed that Gandhiji would get their taxes reduced and have the forest regulations abolished.
• In Sind (present-day Pakistan), Musluim traders and peasants were enthusiastic about the Khilafat call. In Bengal, the Khilafat Non- Cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.
• In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahantas, who were supported by the British. This movement got closely identified with the Non-Cooperation Movement.
• In Assam, tea garden labourers left the British owned plantations and joined Mahatma Gandhi.

3. What were the demands of the Congress in its early years?

Answer

In its early years the Congress was moderate in its objectives and methods. It made several demands; which were:
• The Congress demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.
• It demanded that Indians be placed in high positions in the government. For this purpose it called for Civil Service examinations to be held in India as well, not just in London.
• The Congress demanded for the separation of the judiciary from the executive.
• The repeal of the Arms Act and the freedom of speech and expression was also a major demand of the Congress.
• It also demanded reduction of revenue, cut in military expenditure and more funds for irrigation.
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