Notes of Ch 6 Soils| Class 11th Geography


• Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials which develop on the earth’s surface.

• The major factors affecting the formation of soil are relief, parent material, climate, vegetation and other life-forms and time. Besides these, human activities also influence it to a large extent.

• Components of the soil are mineral particles, humus, water and air.

• ‘Horizon A’ is the topmost zone, where organic materials have got incorporated with the mineral matter, nutrients and water, which are necessary for the growth of plants. ‘

• 'Horizon B’ is a transition zone between the ‘horizon A’ and ‘horizon C’, and contains matter derived from below as well as from above. It has some organic matter in it, although the mineral matter is noticeably weathered.

• 'Horizon C’ is composed of the loose parent material. This layer is the first stage in the soil formation process and eventually forms the above two layers. This arrangement of layers is known as the soil profile.

Classification of Soils

• In ancient times, soils used to be classified into two main groups - Urvara and Usara, which were fertile and sterile, respectively.

• Soil Survey of India, established in 1956, made comprehensive studies of soils in selected areas like in the Damodar Valley

• Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) did a lot of studies on Indian soils the ICAR has classified the Indian soils on the basis of their nature and character as per the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil Taxonomy.

• On the basis of genesis, colour, composition and location, the soils of India have been classified into:
(i) Alluvial soils
(ii) Black soils
(iii) Red and Yellow soils
(iv) Laterite soils
(v) Arid soils
(vi) Saline soils
(vii) Peaty soils
(viii) Forest soils

Alluvial Soils

• Alluvial soils are widespread in the northern plains and the river valleys. These soils cover about 40 per cent of the total area of the country.

• They are depositional soils, transported and deposited by rivers and streams.

• Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan, they extend into the plains of Gujarat. In the Peninsular region, they are found in deltas of the east coast and in the river valleys. vary in nature from sandy loam to clay rich in potash but poor in phosphorous.

• Two different types of alluvial soils have developed, viz. Khadar and Bhangar.

• Khadar is the new alluvium and is deposited by floods annually, which enriches the soil by depositing fine silts. Bhangar represents a system of older alluvium, deposited away from the flood plains. Both the Khadar and Bhangar soils contain calcareous concretions (Kankars).

• The colour of the alluvial soils varies from the light grey to ash grey. Its shades depend on the depth of the deposition, the texture of the materials, and the time taken for attaining maturity. Alluvial soils are intensively cultivated.

Black Soil

• Black soil covers most of the Deccan Plateau which includes parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Tamil Nadu.

• They swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried. So, during the dry season, these soil develop wide cracks in the upper reaches of the Godavari and the Krishna, and the north western part of the Deccan Plateau, the black soil is very deep. These soils are also known as ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil'.

• Generally clayey, deep and impermeable. Thus, there occurs a kind of ‘self ploughing’. Because of this character of slow absorption and loss of moisture, the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, which helps the crops, especially, the rain fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season.

• Chemically, the black soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. They also contain potash. But they lack in phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter.

• The colour of the soil ranges from deep black to grey.

Red and Yellow Soil

• Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern part of the Deccan Plateau.

• Along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghat, long stretch of area is occupied by red loamy soil. Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Odisha and Chattisgarh and in the southern parts of the middle Ganga plain.

• The soil develops a reddish colour due to a wide diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.

• The fine-grained red and yellow soils are normally fertile, whereas coarse-grained soils found in dry upland areas are poor in fertility.

• They are generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorous and humus.

Laterite Soil

• Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘Later’ which means brick.

• The laterite soils develop in areas with high temperature and high rainfall. These are the result of intense leaching due to tropical rains. With rain, lime and silica are leached away, and soils rich in iron oxide and aluminium compound are left behind.

• Humus content of the soil is removed fast by bacteria that thrives well in high temperature.

• Poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate and calcium, while iron oxide and potash are in excess. Hence, laterites are not suitable for cultivation; however, application of manures and fertilisers are required for making the soils fertile for cultivation

• Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for tree crops like cashewnut.

• The laterite soils are commonly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.

Arid Soils

• Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

• They are generally sandy in structure and saline in nature, they lack moisture and humus. Nitrogen is insufficient and the phosphate content is normal. Lower horizons of the soil are occupied by ‘Kankar’ layers because of the increasing calcium content downwards.

• The ‘Kankar’ layer formation in the bottom horizons restricts the infiltration of water, and as such when irrigation is made available, the soil moisture is readily available for a sustainable plant growth.

• Arid soils are characteristically developed in western Rajasthan, which exhibit characteristic arid topography. These soils are poor and contain little humus and organic matter.

Saline Soils

• These are also known as Usara soils.

• Saline soils contain a larger proportion of sodium, potassium and magnesium, and thus, they are infertile, and do not support any vegetative growth.

• They occur in arid and semi -arid regions , and in waterlogged and swampy areas.

• Their structure ranges from sandy to loamy.

• They lack in nitrogen and calcium.

• Saline soils are more widespread in western Gujarat, deltas of the eastern coast and in Sunderban areas of West Bengal. In the Rann of Kuchchh, the Southwest Monsoon brings salt particles and deposits there as a crust.

• In such areas, especially in Punjab and Haryana, farmers are advised to add gypsum to solve the problem of salinity in the soil.

Peaty Soils

• These are found in the areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity, where there is a good growth of vegetation. Thus, large quantity of dead organic matter accumulates in these areas, and this gives a rich humus and organic content to the soil. Organic matter in these soils may go even up to 40-50 per cent.

• These soils are normally heavy and black in colour.

• It occurs widely in the northern part of Bihar, southern part of Uttaranchal and the coastal areas of West Bengal, Orissa and Tamil Nadu.

Forest Soils

• Forest soils are formed in the forest areas where sufficient rainfall is available.

• The soils vary in structure and texture depending on the mountain environment where they are formed.

• These are loamy and silty on valley sides and coarse-grained in the upper slopes.

• In the snow-bound areas of the Himalayas, they experience denudation, and are acidic with low humus content. The soils found in the lower valleys are fertile.

Soil Degradation

• Soil Degradation is defined as the decline in soil fertility, when the nutritional status declines and depth of the soil goes down due to erosion and misuse.

• Soil degradation is the main factor leading to the depleting soil resource base in India.

• The degree of soil degradation varies from place to place according to the topography, wind velocity and amount of the rainfall.

Soil Erosion

• The destruction of the soil cover is described as soil erosion.

• The soil forming processes and the erosional processes of running water and wind go on simultaneously. But generally, there is a balance between these two processes.

• The rate of removal of fine particles from the surface is the same as the rate of addition of particles to the soil layer.

• Wind and water are powerful agents of soil erosion because of their ability to remove soil and transport it.

• Wind erosion is significant in arid and semi-arid regions.

• In regions with heavy rainfall and steep slopes, erosion by running water is more significant.

• Water erosion which is more serious and occurs extensively in different parts of India, takes place mainly in the form of sheet and gully erosion.

• Sheet erosion takes place on level lands after a heavy shower and the soil removal is not easily noticeable. But it is harmful since it removes the finer and more fertile top soil.

• Gully erosion is common on steep slopes. Gullies deepen with rainfall, cut the agricultural lands into small fragments and make them unfit for cultivation.

• A region with a large number of deep gullies or ravines is called a badland topography. Ravines are widespread, in the Chambal basin. Besides this, they are also found in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

• The country is losing about 8,000 hectares of land to ravines every year.

• Deforestation is one of the major causes of soil erosion. They also add humus to the soil by shedding leaves and twigs.

• A fairly large area of arable land in the irrigated zones of India is becoming saline because of over- irrigation. The salt lodged in the lower profiles of the soil comes up to the surface and destroys its fertility.

• Chemical fertilisers in the absence of organic manures are also harmful to the soil. Unless the soil gets enough humus, chemicals harden it and reduce its fertility in the long run.

• This problem is common in all the command areas of the river valley projects, which were the first beneficiaries of the Green Revolution.

• According to estimates, about half of the total land of India is under some degree of degradation.

Soil Conservation

• Soil conservation is a methodology to maintain soil fertility, prevent soil erosion and exhaustion, and improve the degraded condition of the soil.

• Soil erosion is essentially aggravated by faulty practices. The first step in any rational solution is to check open cultivable lands on slopes from farming.

• Lands with a slope gradient of 15 - 25 per cent should not be usedfor cultivation. If at all the land is to be used for agriculture, terraces should carefully be made.

• Over-grazing and shifting cultivation in many parts of India have affected the natural cover of land and given rise to extensive erosion.

• It should be regulated and controlled by educating villagers about the consequences.

• Contour bunding, Contour terracing, regulated forestry, controlled grazing, cover cropping, mixed farming and crop rotation are some of the remedial measures which are often adopted to reduce soil erosion

• The Central Soil Conservation Board, set up by the Government of India, has prepared a number of plans for soil conservation in different parts of the country. These plans are based on the climatic conditions, configuration of land and the social behaviour of people.
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