NCERT Solutions for Class 12: Ch 3 US Hegemony in World Politics Political Science

Exercises

1. Which among the following statements about hegemony is incorrect?
(a) The word implies the leadership or predominance of one State.
(b) It was used to denote the predominance of Athens in the ancient Greece.
(c) The country having hegemonic position will possess unchallenged military power.
(d) Hegemonic position is fixed. Once a hegemon, always a hegemon.

Answer

(d) Hegemonic position is fixed. Once a hegemon, always a hegemon.

2. Which among the following statements is wrong about the contemporary world order?
(a) There is an absence of world government, which could regulate the State’s behaviour.
(b) The US is the predominant player in world affairs.
(c) States are using force against one another.
(d) States, which violate international law, are severely punished by the UN.

Answer

(c) States are using force against one another.

3. Which among the following statements is wrong with regard to Operation Iraqi Freedom?
(a) More than forty countries joined in the US led coalition of the willing to invade Iraq.
(b) The reason given for invading Iraq was to prevent it from developing weapons of mass
destruction.
(c) The action was taken with the prior approval of the UN.
(d) The US-led coalition did not face major resistance from Iraqi forces.

Answer

(c) The action was taken with the prior approval of the UN.

4. Give an example each of the three types of hegemony that are dealt within the chapter. Do not cite examples that are in the chapter.

Answer

• Hegemony as Hard Power: Afiya was an artist living in Mozambique who was doing well in her studies and was planning to study medicine in university. But she lost her leg in 2003 missile attack by the US. After she overcame it, she still plans to become a doctor, but only after the foreign armies leave her country.

• Hegemony as Structural Power: Kungawo, a very good artist who lives in Durban, South Africa. His paintings are heavily influenced by traditional tribal art forms and wants to go to art school
and later open his own studio. But his father wants him to do engineering in computer science due to flair for job opportunities in the same.

• Hegemony as Soft Power: Oliver is a young and energetic man of New Zealand. Her parents are immigrants from Russia. His father gets upset when he puts on black shirt with white jeans while he goes to church. He justifies that black colour signifies protest for freedom and white signifies freedom in a peaceful manner

5. Mention three ways in which US dominance since the Cold War is different from its position as a superpower during the Cold War.

Answer

• During Cold War, the US found it difficult to win over the Soviet Union as hard power due to retaliating capacity of the Soviet Union and to protest world from large scale destruction. But in the areas of structural and soft power, the US dominated.

• During Cold War years, the Soviet Union provided an alternate model of socialist economy to maximise welfare of states. Still the world economy throughout the Cold War years adapted capitalist economy under the US.

• In the area of soft power, the US became triumphant. As the example of blue jeans shows that the US could engineer a generational gap even in Soviet Society on culture basis.

6. Match the following:

i. Operation Infinite Reach a. War against Al-Qaeda and Taliban
ii. Operation Enduring Freedom b. Coalition of the willing
iii. Operation Desert Storm c. Missile attack in Sudan
iv. Operation Iraqi Freedom d. First Gulf War

Answer

i. Operation Infinite Reach c. Missile attack in Sudan 
ii. Operation Enduring Freedom a. War against Al-Qaeda and Taliban
iii. Operation Desert Storm d. First Gulf War
iv. Operation Iraqi Freedom b. Coalition of the willing

7. What are the constraints on American hegemony today? Which one of these do you expect to get more important in the future?

Answer

“We can identify three constraints on American Power” which were actually not in operation in the years following 9/11. Hence the US could establish its hegemony. Recently all these constraints are slowly beginning to operate in the following ways:

• The US bears institutional architecture in the American State itself. It refers division of powers between the three branches of government where American military’s executive branch can place significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise.

• The second constraint on American hegemony emerges from open nature of American society. American society and suffering from a deep skepticism towards purposes and methods of government in America despite an imposition of particular perspectives on domestic opinion in the US. This is a huge constraint on US military action overseas.

• The third constraint on US hegemony is the possession of NATO to moderate the exercise of the US hegemony today. The US has an enormous interest in keeping the alliance of democracies to follow the market economies alive and it may be possible to its allies in NATO to moderate the exercise of the US hegemony through their own liberal policies to fulfill their own ends.

8. Read the three extracts in the chapter from Lok Sabha debate on the Indo-US deal. Develop any one of these into a full speech defending a certain position on Indo-US relations.

Answer

The following speech has been developed based on the excerpts from Lok Sabha debate as presented by Major General (Retired) B.C. Khanduri of BJP:

Sir, I would respectfully draw the attention of august house towards the US hegemony in today’s scenario. But we should not ignore the fact that India might be next waiting in the wings to perform as a superpower to maintain its own identity. Moreover, hegemony can not stand forever due to its weaknesses. Therefore, we are supposed to have a good and harmonious relations with that of the US for mutual promotion of trade and technology. But India should not compromise from the same on the cost of its own security and identity.
Hence, India should work in a diplomatic manner while it thinks to go hand-in¬hand the US in such a manner that India could extract best benefits from the US hegemony and find out mutual options for itself.
Thanks.

9. “If big and resourceful states cannot resist the US hegemony, it is unrealistic to expect much smaller and weaker non-state actors to offer any resistance”. Examine this proposition and give your opinion.

Answer

This proposition focuses only on, the powers of the state and believes that only big and resourceful states can challenge the US hegemony which it approaches right in a practical manner, but if we think deeply these are thoughts and pens of writers, expressions of artists, media and intellectuals who have no boundaries including hegemony itself to be criticised and resisted in the form of non-government organisations (NGOs), social movements and public opinion. Hence, non-state actors may challenge the US hegemony also in their own way and it can work out also.
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