Pollution Essay| Types of Pollution, Solutions to Pollution

Environment means surroundings in which we live. It is a precious gift of nature to all beings. Pollution is the presence of harmful substances in our environment. It is a global problem but more prevalent in urban areas than rural areas. Environmental pollution is the result of increasing population, growth and development of cities as well as the curse of development of science and technology and industrial prosperity. Pollution affects human lives negatively and contributes to global warming.
Pollution Essay

Types of Pollution

There are three main kinds of pollution. These are:
• Air pollution
• Water pollution
• Soil pollution
Other than this, there are also various types of pollution that are:
• Light pollution
• Noise Pollution
• Radioactive Pollution

Air Pollution

Air pollution is defined as any atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such concentrations and duration that they may produce harmful effects on human lives. Common air pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb) also dust, smoke, pollen and other solid particles. 

Some air pollutants may be introduced through natural occurrences such as volcanic eruptions, wind soil erosion, forest fires, sand storms, dispersion of plant pollen, etc but pollutants are mainly introduced through man-made activities. With the growth of large industries, from the chimneys of factories, from the exhaust pipes of motor vehicles to the railways, from the stoves which work in the houses to burning objects they emit the gases that pollutes air.

The problem of air pollution is accelerated in size due to increasing urbanisation. Thus polluted atmosphere has become as a part of urban life. Urbanization, industrialization and economic growth resulted in a deterioration of urban air quality.

It causes global warming, acid rains, respiratory problems and changes the natural habitat of wildlife.

Water Pollution

Water is essential for the survival of any form of life. It is colourless and transparent substance. The polluted water means water which contains foreign substances in it, which alters physical, chemical or biological properties of water making it unfit for use.

With increasing population, urbanization, industrialization and agriculture activites are expanding at fast rate.This led high demands of water supply. These will lead to the generation of large volume of waste water. Indiscriminate discharge of such waste water into natural water resources to such an extent, the water would become unfit for further use.

The main causes of the water pollution are industrial waste, sewage, garbage and liquid waste of households, chemical pesticides and fertilizers, accidental oil leakage, marine dumping, acid rain, global warming, eutrophication etc.

Soil Pollution

Soil pollution mean the presence of pollutants, contaminants, and toxic chemicals in the soil above a certain level causing deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions. The main cause of soil pollution is random dumping of hazardous industrial waste, rupture of underground storage tanks, use of pesticides, discharging of wastes from landfills. 

This decreases the soil fertitlity, affect human health negatively, changes the soil structure and affects the growth of plants.Soil pollution is directly linked industrialization and intensity of chemical usage.

Light Pollution

Light pollution, includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference. Artificial light at night that washes star light is one of the most obvious physical changes that humans have made to the biosphere. It is the easiest form of pollution to observe from space. It disrupts the natural balance  and prove deadly for many creatures including mammals, plants, amphibians, insects, and birds. It also affects dispersal, orientation, migration, and hormone levels, resulting in disrupted circadian rhythms.

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is the product of industrialization, urbanization as well as technological and scientific progress. It is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas . In past time, it is confined to a few special areas like factory or production unit. But nowadays, every new comers ofthe globe are completely in touch with this.

There are many causes of noise pollutions such as indsutrialization, poor urban planning, social events, household chores, transportation, and construction activities. It affects human live negatively such as hearing problems, health issues, cardiovascular issues, sleeping disorders etc.

Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive pollution means presence or depositions of radioactive materials in the atmosphere or environment. This is caused due to cuclear accidents from nuclear energy generation plants, use of nuclear weapons, mining, spillage of radioactive chemicals etc. It can make any living organisms ill or even cause mass destruction.

Solutions to Pollution

  • The most desirable method is to reduce the emission of pollutants at the source itself. We should improve the fuel by selecting less polluting fuel or purifying the fuel. Replacement of fossil fuels by methanol, ethanol and less polluting fuels as natural gas, biogas in place of diesel, wood, kerosene and treated coal in place of raw coal.
  • The chimneys of the factories should not only be elevated but also scientific solution should be found to remove emission of harmful gases.
  • We should avail public transportation in order to reduce the number of vehicles. Also, we can adopt environment-friendly transportation such as bicycles, electric vehicles etc.
  • We should increase green areas by planting trees and prevent forest fires through improved forest, land and water management.
  • To remove pollutants from water Biological agents can also be used. Certain bacterias can also be useful to neutralize certain chemicals in polluted water.
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