NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 4 Executive

NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 4 Executive Political Science

Exercises

Page No: 97

1. A parliamentary executive means:
a. Executive where there is a parliament
b. Executive elected by the parliament
c. Where the parliament functions as the Executive
d. Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the parliament
► d. Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the parliament

2.  Read this dialogue. Which argument do you agree with? Why?
Amit: Looking at the constitutional provisions, it seems that the President is only a rubber stamp.
Shama: The President appoints the Prime Minister. So, he must have the powers to remove the Prime Minister as well.
Rajesh: We don’t need a President. After the election, the Parliament can meet and elect a leader to be the Prime Minister.

Answer

I agree with argument given by Amit that the President is only a rubber stamp because according to constitutional provision there is no real power which is in the hands of the president. Despite having certain discretionary powers 

3. Match the following:

i. Works within the particular State in which recruited a. Indian Foreign Services
ii. Works in any central government office located either at the national capital or elsewhere in the country  b. State Civil Services
iii. Works in a particular State to which allotted; can also be sent on deputation to the centre c. All India Services
iv.Works in Indian missions abroad d. Central Services

Answer

i. Works within the particular State in which recruited b. State Civil Services
ii. Works in any central government office located either at the national capital or elsewhere in the country  c. All India Services
iii. Works in a particular State to which allotted; can also be sent on deputation to the centre d. Central Services
iv.Works in Indian missions abroad a. Indian Foreign Services

4. Identify the ministry which may have released the following news items. Would this be a ministry of the central government or the State government? Why?
a. An official release said that in 2004-05 the Tamil Nadu Textbooks Corporation would release new versions for standards VII, X and XI.
b. A new railway loop line bypassing the crowded Tiruvallur-Chennai section to help iron ore exporters. The new line, likely to be about 80 km long, will branch off at Puttur and then reach Athipattu near the port.
c. The three-member sub-divisional committee formed to verify suicide by farmers in Ramayampet mandal has found that the two farmers who committed suicide this month have had economic problems due to failure of crops.

Answer

a. Ministry of Human Resource Development, State government may have released because textbooks are published for a particular state.

b. Railway Ministry, Central government because railway is managed by the central government.

c. Ministry of Agriculture, State Government because sub-divisional is supervised by the agricultural department of the state government.

5. While appointing the Prime Minister, the President selects
a. Leader of the largest party in the Lok Sabha
b. Leader of the largest party in the alliance which secures a majority in the Lok Sabha
c. The leader of the largest party in the Rajya Sabha
d. Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha
► d. Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha

6. Read this discussion and say which of these statements applies most to India.
Alok: Prime Minister is like a king, he decides everything in our country.
Shekhar: Prime Minister is only ‘first among equals’, he does not have any special powers. All ministers and the PM have similar powers.
Bobby: Prime Minister has to consider the expectations of the party members and other supporters of the government. But after all, the Prime Minister has a greater say in policy making and in choosing the ministers.

Answer

The statement of Bobby applies most to India. Prime Minister has to consider the expectations of the party members and other supporters of the government. But after all, the Prime Minister has a greater say in policy making and in choosing the ministers.

7. Why do you think is the advice of the Council of Ministers binding on the President? Give your answer in not more than 100 words.

Answer

As the Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary system of government, the Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister is the real executive authority. The President exercises his powers only on the advice of the Council of Ministers. According to Article 74, there shall be a council of ministers with Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice.
Consequently, the President has been made only a nominal executive; his place in administration is that of a ceremonial device or a seal by which the nation’s decision are made known.

8. The parliamentary system of executive vests many powers in the legislature for controlling the executive. Why, do you think, is it so necessary to control the executive?

Answer

There are two systems of democracy exist in the world. One is the parliamentary system and the other is presidential system.
In presidential system, there is clear separation of powers between legislature and executive. Executive is not accountable to legislature. Legislature can't exercise its control over executive. But in the parliamentary system executive is a part of the legislature. They are accountable to the legislature. The legislature exercises its control over executive by different instruments like adjournment motion, no confidence motion etc.
The Parliament keeps a day-to-day watch over the activities of the Executive. As ours is a parliamentary system of Government, the Executive is responsible to the Parliament for all acts of omissions and commissions.
In a parliamentary form of government, the legislature and executive aren’t really separated. In a nominal sense, the legislature is in control, in that the executive must report to the legislature and is entitled to rule by virtue of having the confidence of a majority in the legislature. But this nominal control doesn’t describe the realities of power.
When a single party holds a majority in the legislature, this entitles it to complete control of the executive. That party then has control of both branches. But the party leadership will also take the leading roles in the executive, so as far as the two branches are concerned, the reality is that the executive controls the legislature, and when no single party holds a majority, the legislature is in a more powerful position, and the executive will depend for its continuation on trade-offs between parties in the legislature.

9. It is said that there is too much political interference in the working of the administrative machinery. It is suggested that there should be more and more autonomous agencies which do not have to answer to the ministers.
a. Do you think this will make administration more people- friendly?
b. Do you think this will make administration more efficient?
c. Does democracy mean full control of elected representatives over the administration?

Answer

a. No, i don’t think so it’ll make administration more people friendly because in a democracy, the elected representatives and the ministers are in charge of government and the administration is under their control and supervision. Hence forth, the elected representatives and the ministers are the representative of the people and the administration is under their control and regulation, hence they cannot act in violation of the policies adopted by the legislature. It is the responsibility of the ministers to retain political control over the administration. India has established professional administrative.

b. This will not make administration more efficient as it would lead to defiance of bureaucratic executives with government policies. Thus, it would lead to contradiction of the bureaucracy with the goals of the government. Competence in this situation is not valid as social welfare would be compromised. So, it not sounds like that it’ll make administration more efficient at all.

c. Simply put; in a democracy, there is no sonorous control of the elected representatives over administration. The main work of these elected representatives is to make laws, apply them and keep the administration libel. Simply, it is the responsibility of the administrative machinery to faithfully and efficiently participate in drafting the policy and in its implementation.

10. Write an essay of two hundred words on the proposal to have an elected administration instead of an appointed administration.

Answer

Elected administration is a very reliable type of administration. The elected administration would change the policies. And there would be unstability to implement different policies. The appointed administration is non-partial. The civil servants are selected impartially on the basis of merit. Thus, the welfare policies of the government can be effectively handled. Policies would be implemented without any political interference. The elected administration would have lack of technical knowledge of their departments while members of administration have full knowledge of their departments. Hence, they are more successful to implement the policies effectively and efficiently. They will be able to implement and perform the developmental functions. They will be also able to perform the functions of planning and social welfare.
A major difference is that appointed administrations are not permanent and can be removed but in the elected administration it is permanent, and they must fail to be re-elected at the next election. In some areas there is a procedure called a recall election, where the voters have lost confidence in an official and vote to remove him. They then elect someone else. However, this remedy is not always available.
In either case, an elected administration can resign or retire at his own request or if he has committed a crime he can be removed. 

Notes of Chapter 4 Executive

Watch age fraud in sports in India

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