Notes of Ch 9 Traders, Kings and Pilgrims| Class 6th History

Notes of Chapter 9 Traders, Kings and Pilgrims Class 6th History

Trade and Traders

• Traders may have carried them from the places where they were made, to sell them at other places.

• Traders carried many of these goods to Rome in ships, across the sea, and by land in caravans.

• Traders explored several sea routes. 
→ Some of these followed the coasts. 
→ Others were across the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, where sailors took advantage of the monsoon winds to cross the seas more quickly.

New kingdoms along the coasts

• Chiefs and kings who controlled the river valleys and the coasts became rich and powerful.

• The Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas became powerful in south India around 2300 years ago.

• These three chiefs had two centres of power: one inland, and one on the coast.

• Of these six cities, two were very important: 
→ Puhar or Kaveripattinam, the port of the Cholas.
→ Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas.

• These chiefs demanded and received gifts from the people and also went on military expeditions.

• Many poets compositions are found in the Sangam collection composed poems in praise of chiefs.


• Around 200 years later a dynasty known as the Satavahanas became powerful in western India.
→ The most important ruler of the Satavahanas was Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.

• Satavahana rulers were known as lords of the dakshinapatha, literally the route leading to the south.

The Story of Silk Route

• The rich, glossy colours of silk and smooth texture, make it a highly valued fabric in most societies. 

Process of Making silk

• Raw silk has to be extracted from the cocoons of silk worms, spun into thread and then woven into cloth.

• Techniques of making silk were first invented in China around 7000 years ago.

• Some people from China who went to distant lands on foot, horseback, and on camels, carried silk with them.
→ The paths they followed came to be known as the Silk Route.

• Some kings tried to control large portions of the route because they could benefit from taxes, tributes and gifts that were brought by traders travelling along the route.

The Kushanas

• The best-known of the rulers who controlled the Silk Route were the Kushanas, who ruled over central Asia and north-west India.
→ Two major centres of power of Kushanas were Peshawar and Mathura.
→ The Kushanas were amongst the earliest rulers of the subcontinent to issue gold which coins were used by traders along the Silk Route.

The spread of Buddhism

• The most famous Kushana ruler was Kanishka, who organised a Buddhist council, where scholars met and discussed matters.

• Ashvaghosha, a poet who composed a biography of the Buddha, the Buddhacharita, lived in his court.

• During this period, a new form of Buddhism, known as Mahayana Buddhism developed .

• Mahayana Buddhism had two distinct features:
→ It included creation of statues of the Buddha in places like Taxila and Mathura.
→ Belief in Bodhisattvas or people who attained enlightenment also gained ground and spread in places like Central Asia, China, Korea and Japan.

• The older form of Buddhism, known as Theravada Buddhism spread to Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and other parts of Southeast Asia including Indonesia.

The quest of the pilgrims

• Pilgrims are men and women who undertake journeys to holy places in order to offer worship.

• The best-known of these are the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims:
→ Fa Xian, who came to the subcontinent about 1600 years ago.
→ Xuan Zang who came around 1400 years ago.
→ I-Qing, who came about 50 years after Xuan Zang.

• Each of these pilgrims left an account of his journey.

The beginning of Bhakti

• During this time, worship of certain deities, which became a central feature of later Hinduism, gained in importance. 
→ These deities included Shiva, Vishnu, and goddesses such as Durga.

• These deities were worshipped through Bhakti which is generally understood as a person’s devotion to his or her chosen deity.

• The idea of Bhakti is present in the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred book of the Hindus, which is included in the Mahabharata.

• Those who followed the system of Bhakti emphasised devotion and individual worship of a god or goddess, rather than the performance of elaborate sacrifices.

• According to this system of belief, if a devotee worships the chosen deity with a pure heart, the deity will appear in the form in which he or she may desire.

Watch age fraud in sports in India


Get Offline Ncert Books, Ebooks and Videos Ask your doubts from our experts Get Ebooks for every chapter Play quiz while you study

Download our app for FREE

Study Rankers Android App Learn more

Study Rankers App Promo