Notes of Chapter 1 Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years Class 7th History


• Maps shows the changes that happen throughout the years.

• However, the maps were not constant always in the history.

• The accuracy of map differs throughout the period.

• Changes in names of geographical places can also be traced through historical maps.

New and Old Terminologies

• The significance, usage and meanings of terminologies change over time.

• The context changed from geographical and cultural to political. In modern context, foreigner means a person who is not Indian.
→ During the medieval period, a foreigner was any stranger who appeared in a village or city.

Historians and their Sources

• Major sources of historical information are:
→ Coins
→ Architecture
→ Inscriptions 
→ Textual records

• The period from 700 AD to 1750 AD saw an increase in the number of textual records. 

• The reason was easy availability of paper and its low cost.

New Social and Political Groups

• There was large scale and variety of developments occurred over the period between 700 AD and 1750 AD which make it challenging for the historians to make it available for the study. 

• New technologies in irrigation, agriculture, crafts and warfare appeared in the subcontinent .

• Travelling for trade and exploration also increased.

• Rajputs, a group of warriors who claimed Kshatriya status, gained in importance during this period. 

• The Marathas, Sikhs, Jats, Ahoms and Kayasthas also became important.

Caste System

• People were grouped into jatis or sub-castes.
→ They were ranked on the basis of their backgrounds and their occupations.

• Jatis framed their own rules and regulations to manage the conduct of their members.

Region and Empire

• During this period, many dynasties emerged. 

• Dynasties like the Cholas, Khaljis, Tughluqs and Mughals were able to build an empire that was pan-regional – cover diverse regions.

Old and New Religions

• Religion was often closely associated with the social and economic organization of local communities.

• During this period, important changes occurred in Hinduism:
→ They included the worship of new deities, royal patronage of temples.

• The teachings of Islam were also introduced through migrants and merchants. 

• Muslims regard the Quran as their holy book and accept the sovereignty of the one God, Allah.

Time and historical periods

• Time reflects changes in social and economic organisation, in the persistence and transformation of ideas and beliefs.

• British historians divided India’s history into three periods: “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “British” (based on the idea that the religion of rulers).

• Modern historians focus on economic and social factors, dividing history into ancient, medieval and modern periods.

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