Notes of Chapter 1 On Equality Class 7th Civics

Equal right to vote

• In a democratic country, like India, all adults irrespective their religion, their education, caste, or rich or poor are allowed to vote.
→ This is called Universal Adult Franchise.

• The idea of universal adult franchise is based on the idea of equality.

Other kinds of equality

• The poverty is one of main basis of inequality in India.

• Apart from poverty, people in India experience inequality in different ways.

• Caste is one of the more common forms of inequality in India.
→ Dalits (lower castes) still face discrimination in various ways.

Recognising dignity

• When persons are treated unequally, their dignity is violated.

Equality in Indian democracy

• The Indian Constitution recognizes every person as equal.

• This is not to say that inequality ceases to exist.

• But at least, in democratic India, the principle of the equality of all persons is recognized.

• Now there are several laws to see that people are treated with dignity and as equals.

• There are certain provision provided in the constitution for the recognition of equality:

→ Every person is equal before the law.

→ No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste, place of birth or whether they are female or male. 

→ Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets.

• The two ways in which the government has tried to implement the equality:
→ Through laws in the Constitution. 
→ Through government programmes or schemes to help disadvantaged communities. 

Issues of equality in other democracies

• India is the only democratic country in which there is inequality and where the struggle for equality continues to exist.

• In many democratic countries around the world, the issue of equality continues to be the key issue around which communities struggle.

• For example, in United States of America, the African–Americans whose ancestors were the slaves who were brought over from Africa, continue to describe their lives today as largely unequal. 
→ This, despite the fact that there was a movement in the late 1950s to push for equal rights for African– Americans. 

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