Revision Notes of Ch 16 Garbage in, Garbage out Class 6th Science

Topics in the chapter

  • Introduction
  • Sources of waste 
  • Types of waste 
  • Separation of garbage at landfill
  • Ill effect of plastic and its management
  • Vermicomposting 
  • How to reduce garbage?


→ Garbage is an undesired and unwanted material.

→ It is also referred to as rubbish, junk or trash.

→ Proper disposal of garbage is necessary for maintaining cleanliness in surroundings.

Sources of waste

(i) Domestic wastes: Vegetable peels, paper, food leftover and plastics are domestic waste.

(ii) Industrial waste: Wastes which produced from industries like plastic, glass, fly ash, smoke etc.

(iii) Commercial wastes: These wastes come from generated from commercial establishment such as hotels, malls, auto-repair shops, medical facilities.

(iv) Agricultural wastes: These wastes are rice husk, dried stems and weeds and cattle waste.

Types of waste

→According to mode of decomposition, there are three types of wastes:
(i) Biodegradable wastes
(ii) Non-biodegradable wastes
(iii) Plastics

Biodegradable wastes

→ Wastes which broken down into simple constituents by the action of microorganisms.

→ Examples: animal wastes, organic wastes, domestic refuse etc.

Non-biodegradable wastes

→ Wastes which cannot be disintegrated by action of microorganisms and remain unaffected from decomposition.

→Examples: glass, scraps, metal etc.


→ It cannot converted into less harmful substances by composting.

→ Examples: bottles, pipes, shoes, bags etc.

Separation of garbage at landfill

Useful components

→ The part of garbage which can be re-used is known as useful component.

→This components are then re-treated with some process to make it non-toxic.

Non-useful components

→ The part of garbage which cannot be used is known as non-useful components.

→ This components are then separated and spread on the land and put sand layer on it.

Ill effect of plastics

(i) Plastic bags choke sewer system.

(ii) Burning emits poisonous gases cause health problems.

(iii) Food stored in bad quality plastic may harmful for body

(iv) Food eaten by animals from plastic bags which may lead to death.

Management of plastics

(i) Do not burn plastic bags or other plastic items

(ii) Do not throw plastic here and there after use

(iii) Use paper bags or cloth bags instead of plastic bags

(iv) Educate family members and friends about the proper disposal of plastics.


→ It is a method of preparing compost with the help of red worms is known as vermicomposting.

→ Excreta of the worms make the compost very rich in nutrients.

→ Vericompost is organic fertilizer, nutrient-rich and soil conditioner.

How to reduce garbage?


→ We have to reduce our consumption.

→ We should use an item when it is necessary to use.


→ We can reuse substances many items.

→ For example: newspaper into book cover or as a bag.


→ It is a process in which used materials converts into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials.
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