Notes of Ch 3 From Gathering to Growing Food| Class 6th History

Notes of Chapter 3 From Gathering to Growing Food Class 6th History

Varieties of foods

• Most of our food such as fruit, vegetables, grain, milk and meat comes from plants that are grown and animals that are reared.

• Different plants grow in different conditions — rice, for example, requires more water than wheat and barley. 

• This explains why farmers grow some crops in some areas and not in other areas. Different animals too, prefer different environments — for instance, sheep and goat can survive more easily than cattle in dry, hilly environments.

The beginnings of farming and herding

• Domestication is the process in which the man grows the plants and protects the animals. Most of these animals tended by man become different from there wild counterparts.

• People often select the animals and plants to be domesticated by them. This process of domestication began some 12,000 years ago.

• Virtually all the plant and animal produces which we eat today are the result of Domestication.

‘Storing’ animals

• Animals multiply naturally. Besides, if they are looked after carefully, they provide milk, which is an important source of food, and meat, whenever required.

• In other words, animals that are reared can be used as a ‘store’ of food.

Finding out about the first farmers and herders

• The archaeologists have found evidence of early farmers and herders.

• These are found all over the subcontinent.

• Some of the most important ones are in the north-west, in present-day Kashmir, and in east and south India.

• To prove that these settlements belonged to farmers and herders, scientists study the evidences of plants and animals.

• Scientists have found burnt grain at these sites. These grains could have been burnt accidentally or purposefully. Also, bones of different animals are found.

• Based on these finds scientists confirm that a number of crops plants and animals existed in different parts of India sub-continent.

Towards a settled life

• Archaeologists have found traces of many things. They have use these things to know how the ancient people lived, what did the ancient people eat etc.,

• Traces of huts at some sites. For example, in Burzahom (in Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. These houses may have provided shelter in cold weather.

• Cooking hearths: Cooking places were found both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather, people could cook food either indoors or outdoors.

• Neolithic tools: Included polished stone tools to give cutting edge and mortar pistils used for grinding grains. Along with these Neolithic tools, even the tolls of Paleolithic age were still used.

• Farmers and herders live in groups called tribes.

Living and dying in Mehrgarh

• Mehrgarh site is located in a fertile plain, near the Bolan Pass, which is one of the most important routes into Iran.

• Mehrgarh was probably one of the places where women and men learnt to grow barley and wheat, and rear sheep and goats for the first time in this area.

• It is one of the earliest villages that we know about.

Daojali Hading

• Daojali Hading is a site on the hills near the Brahmaputra Valley, close to routes leading into China and Myanmar. Here, stone tools, including mortars and pestles, have been found.

• These indicate that people were probably growing grain and preparing food from it. Other finds include jadeite, a stone that may have been brought from China.

• Also, common are finds of tools made of fossil wood (ancient wood that has hardened into stone), and pottery.

NCERT Solutions of Chapter 3 From Gathering to Growing Food

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