Notes of Ch 2 Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes| Class 6th Geography

Notes of Chapter 2 Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes Class 6th Geography


• Globe is a true model (miniature form) of the earth Globes may be of varying size and type – big ones, which cannot be carried easily, small pocket globes, and globe-like balloons, which can be inflated and are handy and carried with ease. 

• The globe is not fixed. It can be rotated the same way as a top spin or a potter’s wheel is rotated. On the globe, countries, continents and oceans are shown in their correct size.

The Poles

The top and bottom of the earth are called the Poles. They are similar to the top and bottom of the globe. The top is called the North Pole and the bottom is called the South Pole.


The way a glove rotates around the pivots, the earth also rotates around an imaginary line. The imaginary line around which the earth rotates is called the axis of the earth.


An imaginary line running on the globe divides it into two equal parts. This line is known as the equator. The northern half of the earth is known as the Northern Hemisphere and the southern half is known as the Southern Hemisphere.

Parallels of latitudes

All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitudes. Latitudes are measured in degrees.

• Important parallels of latitudes:
→ Tropic of Cancer (23½° N) in the Northern Hemisphere.
→ Tropic of Capricorn (23½° S) in the Southern Hemisphere.
→ Arctic Circle at 66½° north of the equator.
→ Antarctic Circle at 66½° south of the equator.

Heat zones of the earth

Torrid Zone

The mid-day sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This area, therefore, receives the maximum heat and is called the Torrid Zone.

Temperate Zones

Beyond the tropics, the mid-day sun is never overhead. This happens because the sun rays come at a slant in these areas. So, this part of the earth receives mild temperature. These zones are called the Temperate Zones.

Frigid Zones

Areas between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole and those between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole receive sun rays at a big slant. Due to this, the sun is never much above the horizon. So, this part of the earth receives the least amount of heat and remains very cold. These zones are called Frigid Zones.


• The imaginary lines which run from one pole to another are called longitudes. 

• These are also called meridians of longitude. 

• The earth has been divided into 1800 longitudes towards the east and 1800 longitudes towards the west. 

• The Prime Meridian and 1800 longitude together divide the earth into two equal halves. 
→ Both 1800 east and 1800 west are on the same line.

Use of Latitudes and Longitudes

• Latitudes and longitudes help us in finding the exact location of a place on the earth.

Longitude and Time

We know that the earth takes about 24 hours to make one rotation on its axis. 
→ Thus, the sunrise and the sunset easily tell us about morning and evening times. 

• When the sun is directly overhead, it is mid-day and you can match your watch to 12 noon at this time. 

• The sun casts the smallest shadow when it is directly overhead. 
→ But the relative position of the sun in sky keeps on changing as we move across the globe either from east to west or vice-versa.

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