Extra Questions for Class 9th: Ch 5 Working of Institutions Social Studies (S.St) Important Questions Answer Included

Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs): 

1. Name the three institutions that play a key role in major decisions in India.


In India, three institutions play a key role in major decisions that are the legislature, executive and judiciary.

2. Who is the Head of the State and the highest formal authority in the country?


The President is the head of the state and is the highest formal authority in the country.

3. Write one recommendation of Mandal Commission.


27% of government jobs be reserved for the socially and economically backward classes.

4. What is meant by coalition government?


A government formed by an alliance of two or more political parties when no single party enjoys majority support is known as coalition government.

5. How many members are nominated by the President in Rajya Sabha?


12 members.

6. When does a bill become a law?


A bill passed by the Parliament becomes a law only after the President’s assent.

7. Write one function of the Parliament.


Parliament makes new laws, changes the existing laws.

Short Answer Questions (SAQs):

1. “The Indira Sawhney and others vs Union of India Case”, was filed in which concern? Describe it.


The Second Backward Classes Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party Government under the then Prime Minister Morarji Desai. It was headed by Indian Parliamentarian B.P. Mandal. Hence, it was popularly known as the Mandal Commission. 
• The Commission was asked to determine the criteria to identify the socially and educationally backward classes in India and recommend steps for their advancement.
• The Commission gave its report in 1980 and made many recommendations. One of these was that 27% of government jobs be reserved for the socially and economically backward classes (SEBC). The reservation issue was very strongly protested after the implementation of the Commission Report in 1990. People reacted vehemently because this decision affected thousands of job opportunities.
• Some people felt that reservations were necessary to balance the inequality among people of different castes in India. Others felt that reservations were unfair and would deny equal opportunities to those who did not belong to backward communities. 
• Following the nation-wide outrage against the order and protest, a court case was filed against the order. These cases were grouped together by the supreme court and called the ‘Indira Sawhney and others Versus the Union of India Case’. 

2. Why are political institutions important? Give any three points. 


• Institution makes rules and regulations.
• It provides an opportunity for a wider set of people to be consulted in any decision.
• It implements decisions, if a dispute arises there should be someone to determine what is wrong and what is right. 

3. Define the Parliament and the Legislature of India and write any one important role of it. 


In India, a national assembly of elected representatives who exercises supreme political authority on behalf of the people is called the Parliament. At the state level, this is called Legislature or Legislative Assembly. One important role: The Parliament is the final authority for making laws in our country. 

4. Describe the role played by the contemporary Prime Minister of India in the implementation of the Mandal Commission Report. 

• The Prime Minister informed the Parliament about the decision through a statement in both the Houses of Parliament.
• The decision of the cabinet was sent to the department of personnel and training.
• The senior officers of the department drafted an order in line with the cabinet decision and took the minister’s approval. 

5. “The Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers.” Justify this statement. 


• Only a person who enjoys the support of the majority of the members in the Lok Sabha is appointed as the Prime Minister.
• If the majority of the Lok Sabha members say they have “no confidence” in the Council of Ministers, then all the ministers including the Prime Minister have to quit.

Long Answer Questions (LAQs):

1. What is meant by independence of the judiciary? Explain.


Independence of the judiciary:
• Judiciary is not under the control of the legislature or the executive.
• The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes of the party in power.
• The Constitution of India provides the security to service of the judges.  Once appointed by the President, their service cannot be terminated by will or by any authority whatever.
• There is a security of pay and allowances of the judges. Their salaries cannot be reduced
• The Supreme Court and the High Courts are free to decide their own procedure of work and establishment.
• Judge is not allowed to practice after retirement so that they cannot influence judgements of the court.

2. Which house of the Parliament is more powerful in India and why? Give any three reasons to justify your answer.
In which three ways is the Lok Sabha more powerful than the Rajya Sabha Election Procedure of the two Houses of Parliament?


• The Lok Sabha is directly elected by the people and enjoys real power on behalf of the people.
• The Rajya Sabha is elected indirectly and mainly looks after the interest of the regions or federal units.
The Lok Sabha enjoys supreme powers:
• If there is a joint session of the two houses than the will of the Lok Sabha prevails due to its numerical supremacy.
• In money matters, the Lok Sabha is supreme as the Rajya Sabha can only delay a money bill for 14 days or give suggestions.
• The Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers through ‘no-confidence motion’.

3. Describe how the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are appointed.


• The President appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of parties that commands a majority in the Lok Sabha, as Prime Minister.
• In case no single party or alliance gets a majority, the President appoints the person most likely to secure a majority support.
• The President appoints other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
• The Ministers are usually from the party or the coalition that has the majority in the Lok Sabha.
• The Prime Minister is free to choose ministers as they are members of Parliament. A person who is not a member of Parliament can also become a minister, but he has to get elected to one of the Houses of Parliament within six months of appointment as minister. 

High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS):

1. Differentiate between political executive and permanent executive. Which executive is more powerful?


Political executive:
• It is elected by the people for a specified period. 
• Political executive is more powerful than permanent executive. 
• The ministers of political executives are elected by the people, so they are answerable to the people for their work. That’s why, the ministers take all the final decisions. 

Permanent executive: 
• In the second category, people are appointed on a long-term basis, who are called permanent executives.
• Officials working in civil services are called civil servants. They are also called bureaucrats.
• They remain in office even when the ruling party changes. These officers work under political executive and assist them in carrying out day to day administration. Permanent executive is more powerful. 

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