Extra Questions for Class 10th: Ch 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World Social Studies (S.St) Important Questions Answer Included

Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs): 

1. What are Bugyals?


Pastures lands on above 12000 feet high mountains.

(Fig.1, Page No. 97)

2. Gaddi were an important pastoral community of which state?


Himachal Pradesh

(Para – 2, Page No. 98)

3. Define the term ‘Pastoral Nomads’.


Pastoral nomads are those who move from place to place with their cattle.

(Para – 1, Page No.97)

4. Why did the pastoral nomads raise cattle?


For the sale of milk and other products of their cattle like leather, wool etc.

5. Who are Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris?


Pastoral communities of the Himalayas

(Para – 3, Page No. 99)

6. Why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another place?


In search of pastures

7. Raika pastoral community belongs to which state?



(Para – 3, Page No. 101)

8. Where is Serengiti Park located?



(Para – 3, Page No. 110)

9. What are Dhars?


They are high meadows.

(Fig. 4, Page No. 99)

10. Where is the Samburu National Park located?



(Para – 3, Page No. 110)

Short Answer Questions (SAQs):

1. Describe the life of Dhangars of Maharashtra.


• The Dhangar shepherds stay in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. By October, they harvest their bajra and move west to Konkan.
• The Dhangar flocks manure the fields and feed on stubble.
• The Konkani peasants give them rice which they take to the plateau as grain is scarce there. With the onset of monsoon they leave Konkan and return to the dry plateau.

(Para – 2, Page No. 100)

2. List any three factors that the pastoral groups have to consider to sustain their life.


• How long the herds could stay in one area.
• Where they could find water and pasture.
• Calculation of timing and assessment of their movements,
• Relationship with farmers on the way, so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil.

(Para – 1, Page No. 102)

3. Describe how the movement of the Kurumas and Kurubas is defined by the requirement of their cattle.


• Alternation of monsoons and dry season in dry central plateau of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh defines the movement of the Kurumas and Kurubas.
• They move from the cultivated patches near the woods to the coastal tract during the dry season.
• They leave the coastal area for the dry plateau when the rain arrives and the herd has to be shifted. Their buffaloes like the wet conditions of the monsoon month.

(Para - 1, Page No. 101)

4. Who were Gujjar Bakarwals? How did they earn their livelihood?


Gujjar Bakarwals were the herders of goats and sheep living in the region of Jammu and Kashmir.
Their herds moved out of this area between summer and winter and travelled in groups called Kafilas.
• They earned their livelihood by selling milk, ghee, and other products of their herds.
• Women went to the markets and sold home-made products like pots filled with buttermilk, honey, etc. while the men took the cattle to graze.

(Para – 1, Source – A, Page No. 98)

5. Describe the life of Raikas community of Rajasthan.


• Raikas lived in the desert of Rajasthan.
• The rainfall in the region was meagre and uncertain. On cultivated land, harvest fluctuated every year. Over vast stretches, no crop could be grown. So, the Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism.
• During the monsoon, the Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their home villages, where pasture was available.
• By October, when these grazing grounds were dry and exhausted, they moved out in search of other pastures and water, and returned again during the next monsoon.

(Para – 3, Page No. 101| Para – 1, Page No. 102)

6. How did the life of the pastoralists change under the colonial rule?


Under the colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed in the following ways:

• Grazing grounds shrank as it was transformed into cultivated farms which meant the decline of pastures.
• Forest Acts enacted, pastoralists were prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable fodder for their cattle.
• In 1871, the colonial government, in India passed the Criminal Tribes Act by which many pastoral communities were classified as criminal tribes.
• Taxes were imposed on land, canal water, on salt, on trade of goods and even on animals. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they possessed and also the land they used to graze on the pastures.

(Topic- Colonial Rule and Pastoral Life, Page No. 104 and 105)

Long Answer Questions (LAQs):

1. Who are the pastoral nomads? Describe any four features. 


Pastoral nomads are those groups who earn their livelihood by subsistence farming and cattle rearing.
• They move from place to place with their cattle in search of pastures, farming and cattle rearing.
• Their movement is seasonal and is guided by the need of their flock.
• They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep, etc.
• They sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool.
• Some also earn through trade and transport.
• Others combine pastoral activity with agriculture.

(Topic – Pastoral Nomads and their movements, Page No. 98 to 103)

2. Explain the cycle of seasonal movement of Gaddi Shepherds of Himachal Pradesh. 


Seasonal movement of Gaddi Shepherds of the Himachal Pradesh:
• They spend their winter in the lower hills of Shiwalik Range, grazing their flocks in scrub forests.
• By April, they moved to north and spent their summer in Lahaul and Spiti.
• When the snow melted and the high passes were cleared, many of them moved onto higher mountain meadows.
• By September, they began their return movement.
• On the way, they stopped once again in the village of Lahaul and Spiti reaping the summer crop and sowing their winter crop.

(Para – 2, Page No. 98| Para – 1, Page No. 99)

3. Why were the forest lands considered as waste lands? Why did the British want to transform these lands into cultivated farms? 


The forest lands were considered as waste lands because:
• These lands did not yield agricultural product nor any other revenue.
• They considered these lands as unproductive and referred to them as waste lands.
Reasons to transform these lands into cultivated farms:
• By expanding cultivated land, the British wanted to increase their revenue.
• For increasing production of commercial crops like jute, cotton, wheat, etc.
• Since uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive and Britishers thought it to be unproductive and as a waste land.

(Para – 2, Page No. 104) 

4. Describe five main features of the Criminal Tribes Act introduced by the colonial government in India. 


• By this Act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth.
• These communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements.
• They were not allowed to move out without permit.
• The village police kept a continuous watch on them.
• Settled groups were considered peaceful and law abiding.
• Nomads were considered criminals.
• Because of their movement, the nomads could not be identified or controlled.
• Because of their movement, the nomads could not be taxed.

(Para – 2, Page No. 105)
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