Extra Questions for Class 9th: Ch 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution History

Extra Questions for Class 10th: Ch 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Social Studies (S.St) Important Questions Answer Included

Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs): 

1. Who were Liberals?

Answer

Liberals was a group of those people who wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers.

(Para – 4, Page No. 25| Para – 1, Page No. 26)

2. Which group supported women’s suffragette movements?

Answer

Radicals supported women’s suffragette movements.

(Para – 2, Page No. 26)

3. Who were jadidists?

Answer

The Muslim reformers within the Russian empire who wanted modernised Islam to lead their societies.

(Para – 1, Page No. 33)

4. Who sought build a cooperative community called ‘New Harmony’?

Answer

Robert Owen south to build a cooperative community called ‘New Harmony’.

(Para – 5, Page No. 28)

5. How were the liberals different from the democrats?

Answer

Liberals argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government but unlike democrats, they did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every citizen to vote.

(Para – 1, Page No. 26)

6. Who wanted revolutions to put an end to monarchical system?

Answer

Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted revolutions to overthrow monarchical system.

(Para – 2, Page No. 27)

7. By the nineteenth century what changes occurred in the idea of conservatives?

Answer

By the nineteenth century, conservative accepted that some change was necessary but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.

(Para – 3, Page No. 26)

8. Who was Louis Blanc?

Answer

Louis Blanc was a socialist of France who wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.

(Para – 5, Page No. 28)

9. Why were socialist against private property?

Answer

Because the propertied were concerned only with personal gain and not with the welfare of those who made the property productive.

(Para -3, Page No. 28)

10. According to Karl Marx, how workers could free themselves from capitalist exploitation?

Answer

By constructing a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled.

(Para – 6, Page No. 28)

Short Answer Questions (SAQs):

1. Differentiate between the ideas of the liberals and radicals in Europe.

Answer

(i) Liberals wanted a nation that tolerated all religions while radicals wanted a government based on majority.
(ii) Liberals opposed to uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers while radicals were opposed to privileges of land owners and wealthy factory owners.
(iii) Liberals wanted representative elected parliamentary government and did not believe in Adult Franchise while radicals supported women's suffragette movements.

(Para – 4, Page No. 25| Para – 1, Page No. 26)

2. Mention any three features of socialism.

Answer

(i) Socialists were against private property.
(ii) Society as a whole should control property collectively.
(iii) Socialists regarded the private property as the root cause of all social evils.

(Para – 3, Page No. 28| Para – 6, Page No. 28)

3. Mention any three factors responsible for the Russian Revolution of 1905.

Answer

(i) Political: The rule of Tsar was autocratic as he was not subject to parliament.
(ii) Economical: In the year 1904, prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 percent.
(iii) Immediate: The Bloody Sunday incident took place in which more than 100 workers were killed.
(iv) Poor condition of the working class.

(Para – 6, Page No. 32| Para – 1, 2 and 3, Page No. 33)

4. Who was Karl Marx? What were his views about capitalism?

Answer

(i) Karl Marx was socialist.
(ii) He was against capitalism.
(iii) According to Marx, the profit of capitalists was produced by workers.
(iv) He wanted to construct a radically socialist society.

(Para – 6, Page No. 28)

5. Describe the economic condition of the workers at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Answer

(i) Most industry was the private property of industrialists.
(ii) Most of the workers were working for about 10 to 12 hours, a day.
(iii) The working conditions were also very poor.
(iv) Women workers made up about 31% of the factory labour, but they were pair less than men.

(Para – 3 and 4, Page No. 31)

6. Why were socialists against private property and how it could be improved?

Answer

(i) According to socialists, individuals who owned the property that gave employment but the propertied were concerned only with personal gain.
(ii) They were not concerned with the welfare of those who made the property productive.
(iii) Socialists wanted that society as a whole should control property so that more attention would be paid to collective social interests.

(Para – 3, Page No. 28)

7. Describe the viewpoint of radicals.

Answer

(i) Radicals wanted a nation in which government was based on the majority of a country’s population.
(ii) Many supported women’s suffragette movements.
(iii) They opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners.
(iv) They were not against the existence of private property but disliked concentration of property in the hands of a few.

(Para – 2, Page No. 26)

8. Describe the events that happened in 1905 revolution in Russia?

Answer

(i) The attack of police on the procession of workers at the Winter Palace started a series of events that became known as the 1905 Revolution.
(ii) Strikes took place all over the country and universities closed down when student bodies staged walkouts, complaining about the lack of civil liberties.
(iii) Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers established the Union of Unions and demanded a constituent assembly.

(Para – 3, Page No. 33)

Long Answer Questions (LAQs):

1. Explain the views of socialists on private property. Which international body was set up by socialists to spread and coordinate their efforts?

Answer

(i) Socialists were against private property and saw it as a root of all social evils.
(ii) They argued that if society as a whole rather than single individuals controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests.
(iii) Some believed in the idea of cooperatives were to be associations of people who produced goods together and divided the profits according to the work done by members.
(iv) Socialists like Karl Marx believed that workers had to overthrow capitalism and had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled to improve their conditions.
A body named 'Second International' was set up by socialists to coordinate their efforts.

(Para – 3 and 6, Page No. 28)

2. Explain the major events that were responsible for the Russian Revolution of 1905.

Answer

(i) Autocratic Rule: The rule of Tsar was autocratic as he was not subject to parliament.
(ii) Role of Liberals and Socialists: Liberals in Russia campaigned to end dynastic rule. Together with the Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries, they worked with peasants and workers during the revolution of 1905 to demand a constitution.
(iii) Liberals were supported in the empire by nationalists and in Muslim-dominated areas by jadidists who wanted modernised Islam to lead their societies.
(iv) Uprising of workers: In 1904, the prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20%. Also, the working conditions was very poor. Thus, workers demanded reduction in working hours, an increase in wages and improvement in the working conditions.
(v) Bloody Sunday: The incident of Bloody Sunday in which more than 100 workers were killed fuelled the revolution as it lead to an all Russia strike. Lawyers, doctors, engineers and others demanded constituent assembly.

(Para -6, Page No. 32| Para – 1, 2 and 3, Page No.33)

3. Explain the collectivisation programme of Stalin.

Answer

(i) From 1929, Stalin forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms, kolkhoz.
(ii) The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farms.
(iii) Peasants worked on the land, and the kolkhoz profit was shared.
(iv) Those who resisted collectivisation were severely punished. Many were deported and exiled.
(v) As they resisted collectivisation, peasants argued that they were not rich and they were not against socialism. They merely did not want to work in collective farms for a variety of reasons.
(vi) Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such cultivators unsympathetically.

(Para - 4, Page No. 44)

4. Mention the main events of the February Revolution of 1917.

Answer

Main events of the February Revolution were:
(i) In February 1917, there was a severe food shortage in the workers’ quarters.
(ii) All the factories and workers’ quarters were located on the right bank of the River Neva. On the left bank, there were Winter Palace, official buildings and the palace where Duma met.
(iii) On 22nd February, a lockout took place at a factory leading to a strike by the workers. The next day, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy.
(iv) The demonstrating workers ultimately crossed the river and surrounded the official buildings in Petrograd.
(v) The Government imposed a curfew and called out the cavalry and police to keep check on them.

(Topic- The February Revolution in Petrograd, Page No. 35 and 36)

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