Extra Questions for Class 10th: Ch 7 Print Culture and the Modern World History

Extra Questions for Class 10th: Ch 7 Peasants and Farmers History Social Studies (S.St) Important Questions Answer Included

Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs): 

1. Who was Menocchio?

Answer

Menocchio was a miller of sixteenth century in Italy who reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church.

(Para – 1, Page No. 161)

2. What is Calligraphy?

Answer

The art of beautiful and stylish writing.

(New Words, Page No. 154)

3. Who introduced hand-printing technology in Japan?

Answer

Buddhist missionaries from China.

(Para – 5, Page No. 154)

4. Name the first book printed by Johann Gutenberg.

Answer

Bible.

(Para – 1, Page No. 157)

5. How we can say that Gutenberg’s press was too slow as compared to present press technology? Give one example.

Answer

It could print 180 copies of Bible in three years.

(Para – 1, Page No. 157)

6. Which is the oldest printed Japanese book?

Answer

Diamond Sutra.

(Para – 5, Page No. 154)

7. Mention any one feature of the oldest Japanese book.

Answer

Oldest Japanese book contained six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.

(Para – 5, Page No. 154)

8. Who developed the first printing press?

Answer

Johann Gutenberg.

(Para – 4, Page No. 156)

9. Which method of hand-printing was developed in China?

Answer

Woodblock printing.

(Para – 1, Page No. 156)

10. Despite the woodblock printing, what factor raised the demand of new technology in print?

Answer

Gradual increase in demand than the rate of printing by the use of wood-block printing led to the demand of new technology.

(Para – 3 and 4, Page No. 156)

Short Answer Questions (SAQs):

1. What is meant by the print revolution? Explain its significance. 

Answer

The printing of books started at a large scale after the invention of new printing technology. This was called the Print Revolution. 
Significance: 
(i) With the printing press, a new reading public emerged.
(ii) Printing reduced the cost of books. 
(iii) Books flooded the market, reaching out to an ever growing readership.

(Para – 1 and 3, Page No. 159)

2. How had the earliest printing technology developed in the world? Explain with examples.

Answer

(i) The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea which was a system of hand printing. 
(ii) Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan. 
(iii) It was Marco Polo, a great explorer brought printing knowledge of woodblock from China to Italy. 

(Para – 1 and 5, Page No. 154, Para – 1, Page No. 156)

3. What was an “Accordion Book”? Describe any two features of hand printing in China.

Answer

'Accordion Book' is a traditional Chinese book, folded and stitched at the side. 
(i) Chinese Accordion Books were hand printed. They were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of wooden blocks. 
(ii) As both sides of the thin, porous sheet would not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘Accordion Book’ was folded and stitched at the side.
(iii) These Accordion Books could be duplicated by superbly-skilled craftsmen with remarkable accuracy, the beauty of calligraphy.

(Para – 1, Page No. 154)

4. Where was the earliest kind of print technology developed? Explain that technology. 

Answer

(i) The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China. This was a system of hand printing.
(ii) From 594 A.D. onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface.
(iii) As both sides of the thin and porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘Accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. 
(iv) Superbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate it with remarkable accuracy, the beauty of calligraphy.

(Para – 1, Page No. 154)

5. Explain the reasons favouring shift from hand printing to mechanical printing in China.

Answer
The reasons favouring shift from hand printing to mechanical printing in China are: 
(i) Textbooks of Civil Service Examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 
(ii) From the sixteenth century, the number of examination candidates went up and that increased the volume of print.
(iii) By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print diversified. Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials but also by merchants used print in their everyday life. 

(Para – 2 and 3, Page No. 154)

6. Highlight any three innovations which have improved the printing technology from 19th century onwards.

Answer

(i) By the mid-19th century, Richard M. Hoe of New York had perfected the power driven cylindrical press. This was capable of printing 8,000 sheets per hour. This press was particularly useful for printing newspaper. 
(ii) In the late 19th century, the offset press was developed which would print up to six colours at a time. 
(iii) From the turn of the 20th century, electrically operated presses accelerated the printing operations.
(iv) Methods of feeding paper improved, the quality of plates became better, automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the colour register were introduced.
(v) The dust cover or the book jackets were introduced.

(Topic - Further Innovations, Page No. 166)

7. ‘With the printing press a new public emerged in Europe’. Justify the statement. 

Answer

(i) Printing reduced the cost of books. 
(ii) The time and labour required to produce each book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease. 
(iii) Books flooded the market, reaching out to an ever-growing readership.

(Para – 3, Page No. 159)

8. How did Johann Gutenberg develop the first printing press?

Answer

(i) From his childhood, Gutenberg had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. 
(ii) Drawing on this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press, and moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet. 
(iii) By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system. The first book printed by him was the Bible. 

(Para – 1, Page No. 157)

Long Answer Questions (LAQs):

1. Describe the impact of the print revolution in Europe during 15th and 16th century. 

Answer

Impact of the print revolution in Europe during the 15th and 16th century: 

(i) Printing reduced the cost of books. Also, time and labour required to produce each book came down, thus, multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.
(ii) Books flooded the market, reaching out to an ever growing readership.
(iii) Publishers started publishing popular ballads folk tales with beautiful pictures and illustrations.
(iv) Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas and introduced a new world of debate and discussion. 
(v) Even those who disagreed with established authorities, could now print and circulate their ideas. For example, Martin Luther was a German monk, priest, professor and church reformer. He challenged the Church to debate his ideas which led to division within the Church and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. 

(Para – 3 and 5, Page No. 159| Para – 1 and 4, Page No. 160) 

2. How did Martin Luther’s writing bring reforms in the religious field? Explain.

Answer

(i) Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticising the malpractices in the Roman Catholic Church. He posted a printed copy of it on the door of a church in Wittenberg.
(ii) Luther’s writings immediately became popular through printed copies and was read widely. 
(iii) 5000 printed copies of Luther’s translation of the New Testament were sold in a week. 
(iv) All these led to a religious debate and marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
(v) Printing technology played a key role in bringing religious reforms in the 16th century. Hence Martin Luther's remarks were apt, effective and practical. 

(Para – 4, Page No. 160)

3. What difference did printing technology make in the lives of women and children in the 19th century? Explain.

Answer

Impact on Women:
(i) Women became important readers and writers. Penny magazines, especially meant for women, contained guidelines on proper behaviour and housekeeping.
(ii) Novel began to be written in the 19th century and some of the best novelists were women like Jane Austen, Bronte sisters, George Eliot, etc.
(iii) Their writing created a new image of women with will, strength of personality, determination and power to think.
Impact on Children: 
(i) Primary education became compulsory from the late 19th century.
(ii) School textbooks, rural folk tales in edited versions, fairy tales and new stories were published for children. 
(iii) Grimm brothers of Germany spent years to collect traditional folk tales from peasants and France and set up a children’s press in 1857. 

(Topic - Children, Women and Workers, Page No. 165) 

4. Explain with examples how print culture catered to the requirement of Children.

Answer
(i) Primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century, children became an important category of readers. Production of school textbooks became critical for the publishing industry. 
(ii) A children’s press devoted to literature for children alone, was set up in France in 1857. 
(iii) This press published new works as well as old fairy tales and folk tales. 
(iv) The Grimm brothers in Germany spent years in compiling traditional folk tales gathered from peasants. What they collected was edited before the stories were published in a collection in 1812.
(v) Anything that was considered unsuitable for children or would appear vulgar to the elites, was not included in the published version. Rural folk tales thus acquired a new form. In this way, print recorded old tales but also changed them. 

(Topic - Children, Women and Workers, Page No. 165) 

5. Describe any five uses of print culture in the 17th century China. 

Answer

(i) By the 17th century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print diversified.
(ii) Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials but also merchants started used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information. 
(iii) The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces and romantic plays.
(iv) Rich women began to read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
(v) Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtsmen wrote about their lives. 

(Para – 3, Page No. 154)



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