NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 4 Human Settlements

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 4 Human Settlements India People and Economy


Page No: 38

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following towns is NOT located on a river bank?
(a) Agra
(b) Bhopal 
(c) Patna
(d) Kolkata
► (b) Bhopal 

Page No: 39

(ii) Which one of the following is NOT the part of the definition of a town as per the census of India? (a) Population density of 400 persons per sq km.
(b) Presence of municipality, corporation, etc. 
(c) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.
(d) Population size of more than 5,000 persons.
► (c) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.

(iii) In which one of the following environments does one expect the presence of dispersed rural settlements? 
(a) Alluvial plains of Ganga 
(b) Arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan 
(c) Lower valleys of Himalayas 
(d) Forests and hills in north-east
► (a) Alluvial plains of Ganga 

(iv) Which one of the following group of cities have been arranged in the sequence of their ranks i.e. 1, 2, 3 and 4 in size? 
(a) Greater Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai 
(b) Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata 
(c) Kolkata, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata 
(d) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai
► (d) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai 

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words. 

(i) What are garrison towns? What is their function?


Garrison towns are basically towns where military troops permanently stationed.
Functions of garrison towns are:
• It helps in maintaining peace and stability.
• It includes important settlements like training centre, offices and residences of military.

(ii) How can one identify an urban agglomeration? 


Anyone can idetify an urban agglomeration by following three combinations:
(i) a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths
(ii) two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths
(iii) a city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous spread.

(iii) What are the main factors for the location of villages in desert regions?


Availability of water is the main factor for the location of villages in desert regions as it is most important for human survival. Others factors are relief and climate.

(iv) What are metropolitan cities? How are they different from urban agglomerations?


Cities accommodating population size between one to five million are called metropolitan cities. Urban agglomeration differs from metropolitan cities as it a continuous urban spread constituting a town and it's adjoining outgrowths.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words. 

(i) Discuss the features of different types of rural settlements. What are the factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical environments?


There are four types of rural settlements:

• Clustered: It is a compact or closely built up area of houses. The general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures. These settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states.

• Semi-clustered: These settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. These pattern may also result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village. In this case, one or more sections of the village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village.

• Hamleted: Sometimes settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name. This segmentation of a large village is often motivated by social and ethnic factors.

• Dispersed: These settlements pattern appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes. Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.

The factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical environments are:

• Physical features include nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water
• Cultural and ethenic factors include social structure, caste and religion
• Security factors include defence against thefts and robberies.

(ii) Can one imagine the presence of only one-function town? Why do the cities become multi-functional?


No, one cannot imagine the presence of only one-function town. A town cannot grow on one function.

Certain towns and cities perform specialised services and functions and they are known for some specific activities, products or services such as Ambala and Jalandhar are cantonment towns. But this does not mean they does not perform other function. These towns have universities, offices and many other instituions which have another functions. Thus, these town are multi-functional towns.

The cities are not static in their function. The functions change due to their dynamic nature. Even specialised cities, as they grow into metropolises become multifunctional wherein industry, business, administration, transport, etc. become important. The functions get so intertwined that the city cannot be categorised in a particular functional class.

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