NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 3 Human Development

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 3 Human Development India People and Economy

Exercises

Page No: 13

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following is India’s rank in terms of Human Development Index among the countries of the world in 2011?
(a) 126
(b) 134
(c) 128
(d) 129
► (b) 134

(ii) Which one of the following states of India has the highest rank in the Human Development Index?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Punjab
(c) Kerala
(d) Haryana
► (c) Kerala

(iii) Which one of the following states of India has the lowest female literacy?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Arunachal Pradesh
(c) Jharkhand
(d) Bihar
► (d) Bihar

(iv) Which one of the following states of India has the lowest female child sex ratio 0-6 years?
(a) Gujarat
(b) Haryana
(c) Punjab
(d) Himachal Pradesh
► (b) Haryana

(v) Which one of the following Union Territories of India has the highest literacy rate?
(a) Lakshadweep
(b) Chandigarh
(c) Daman and Diu
(d) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
► (a) Lakshadweep

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Define Human Development.

Answer

Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices, increasing their opportunities for education, health care, income and empowerment and covering the full range of human choices from a sound physical environment to economic, social and political freedom.

(ii) Give two reasons for low levels of Human Development in most of the Northern States of India.

Answer

The reasons for low levels of Human Development in most of the Northern States of India are:
• These states are less developed as most the states are dependent on agriculture.
• These states have some severe problems like poverty, unemployment and illiteracy.

(iii) Give two reasons for declining child sex ratio in India.

Answer

• Patriarchal society with more male-centric thoughts in many parts of India prefers boy child over girl child.
• Medical advancement is misused in India for determination of sex and female foetuses were identified and aborted.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Discuss the spatial patterns of female literacy in India in 2001 and bring out the reasons responsible for it.

Answer

The spatial patterns of female literacy in India in 2001 are:

• Overall literacy in India is approximately 65. 4 percent (2001). while female literacy is 54.16 percent.
• Total literacy as well as female literacy is higher than the national average in most of the states from south India.
• There are wide regional disparities in literacy rate across the states of India. There is a state like Bihar which has very low (47.53 percent) literacy and there are states like Kerala and Mizoram which have literacy rates of 90.92 and 88.49 percent respectively.

The reasons are:

• The urban areas provide more facilities to females than rural areas as urban people are more modern.

• The northern states of India are socially and economically backward thus. they made less investment in female child education.

(ii) Which factors have caused spatial variations in the levels of Human Development among the 15 major states in India?

Answer

The factors which have caused spatial variations in the levels of Human Development among the 15 major states in India are:

• Literacy: Kerala is able to record the highest value in the HDI largely due to its impressive performance in achieving near hundred per cent literacy. In a different scenario the states like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Assam and Uttar Pradesh have very low literacy.

• Economic development: Economically developed states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Punjab and Haryana have higher value of HDI as compared to states like Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, etc.

• Regional distortions and social disparities which developed during the colonial period continue to play an important role in the Indian economy, polity and society. The Government of India has made concerted efforts to institutionalise the balanced development with its main focus on social distributive justice through planned development. It has made significant achievements in most of the fields but, these are still below the desired level.

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