NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 2 Structure and Physiography Indian Physical Environment 


Page No: 19

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) In which part of Himalayas do we find the Karewa formation?
(a) North-eastern Himalayas
(b) Himachal-Uttarakhand Himalayas 
(c) Eastern Himalayas
(d) Kashmir Himalayas
► (d) Kashmir Himalayas

(ii) In which of the following states is Loktak lake situated?
(a) Kerala
(b) Uttarakhand 
(c) Manipur
(d) Rajasthan
► (c) Manipur

(iii) Which one of the water bodies separates the Andaman from the Nicobar?
(a) 11° Channel
(b) Gulf of Mannar
(c) 10° Channel
(d) Andaman Sea
► (c) 10° Channel

(iv) On which of the following hill range is the ‘Dodabeta’ peak situated?
(a) Nilgiri hills
(b) Anaimalai hills 
(c) Cardamom hills
(d) Nallamala hills
► (a) Nilgiri hills

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) If a person is to travel to Lakshadweep, from which coastal plain does he prefer and why?


The person will prefer to travel from the western coastal plains because the Lakshdweep islands are situated in Arabian Sea which distance is lowest from this coast. Therefore, it will take the least time to reach the Lakshadweep.

Page No: 20

(ii) Where in India will you find a cold desert? Name some important ranges of this region.


The cold desert in India is located in the north eastern part of the Kashmir Himalayas, which lies between the Greater Himalayas and the Karakoram ranges.

(iii) Why is the western coastal plain is devoid of any delta?


The western coastal plains are narrow and have steep slope. The rivers flow rapidly in one part and hence they don't form any deltas. Therefore, the western coastal plain is devoid of any delta.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 125 words.

(i) Make a comparison of the island groups of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.


Island groups of the Arabian Sea
Island groups of the Bay of Bengal
This island group consists of about 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited. This island groups consist of about 572 islands/islets.
These are situated between 8°N-12°N and 71°E -74°E longitude. These are situated roughly between 6°N-14°N and 92°E -94°E. 
The entire group of islands is broadly divided by the Eleventh degree channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south of the Canannore Island. The entire group of island is divided into two broad categories – the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south. 
The entire island group is built of coral deposits. These islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.
Minicoy is the largest island with an area of 453 sq. km.  The two principal groups of islands include the Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island. 

(ii) What are the important geomorphological features found in the river valley plains?


The river valley plains are formed by the alluvial deposits brought by the rivers. The important geomorphological features found in the river valley plains are:

• Bhabar is a narrow belt ranging between 8-10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of the slope.

• Terai: South of the Bhabar is the Tarai belt, with an approximate width of 10-20 km where most of the streams and rivers re-emerge without having any properly demarcated channel, thereby, creating marshy and swampy conditions known as the Tarai.
→ This has a luxurious growth of natural vegetation and houses a varied wild life.

• Bhangar: It is composed of old alluvium. These areas are less prone to flooding and less fertile as well.

• Khadar: It is composed of new alluvial deposits. These areas are prone to flooding and are very fertile.

• Delta:  A river delta is a landform that occurs at the mouth of a river near where the river flows into the ocean. For example, the famous Sunderbans delta.

(iii) If you move from Badrinath to Sunderbans delta along the course of the river Ganga, what major geomorphological features will you come across?


Badrinath is situated along Ganga river. The Sunderban delta is on the mouth of Ganga and Brahmaputra in Bay of Bengal. If we are moving from Badrinath to Sunderbans delta along the course of the river Ganga, we will come across various of geomorphological features. As we start moving we will come across gorges, V-shaped valleys, rapids, waterfalls, etc. We will also see places where tributaries meet main river Ganga. After sometime, we will enter into northern plains. We will see various erosional and depositional landforms such as sand bars, meanders, oxbow lakes and braided channels. At last, we will reach our destination, swampy and marshy area known as Sunderbans delta formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra river.

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