NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 5 Natural Vegetation Indian Physical Environment 


Page No: 66

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below. 

(i) Sandalwood is an example of:
(a) Evergreen forest
(b) Deciduous forest
(c) Deltaic forest
(d) Thorny forest
► (b) Deciduous forest

Page No: 67

(ii) Which one of the following was the purpose of Project Tiger?
(a) to kill tigers
(b) to put tigers in the Zoo
(c) to protect tigers from illegal hunting
(d) to make films on tigers
► (c) to protect tigers from illegal hunting

(iii) In which one of the following states is the Nandadevi Biosphere reserve
(a) Bihar
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Uttarakhand
(d) Odisha
► (c) Uttarakhand

(iv) How many of the Biosphere reserves from India are recognised by the UNESCO?
(a) One
(b) Two
(c) Three
(d) Four
► (d) Four

(v) Which one of the following proportion of area of the country was targeted to be under forest in Forest Policy of India?
(a) 33
(b) 44
(c) 55
(d) 22
► (a) 33

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What is natural vegetation? Under what climatic conditions are tropical evergreen forests develop?


Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible.
Tropical evergreen forests develop in warm and humid areas with an annual precipitation of over 200 cm and mean annual temperature above 22°C.

(ii) What do you understand by social forestry?


Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development.

(iii) Define Biosphere reserves?


A Biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are internationally recognised within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme.

(iv) What is the difference between forest area and forest cover?


The forest area and forest cover are not the same.

• The forest area is the area notified and recorded as the forest land irrespective of the existence of trees, while the actual forest cover is the area occupied by forests with canopy.

• The forest area is based on the records of the State Revenue Department, while the forest cover is based on aerial photographs and satellite imageries.

• According to state records, the forest area covers 23.28 per cent of the total land area of the country while the actual forest cover in India is only 21.05 percent.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(i) What steps have been taken up to conserve forests?


There are various steps taken based on the forest conservation policy. These are:

• Social forestry: It means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. The National Commission on Agriculture (1976) has classified social forestry into three categories. These are Urban forestry, Rural forestry and Farm forestry.

→ Urban forestry: It pertains to the raising and management of trees on public and privately owned lands in and around urban centres such as green belts, parks, roadside avenues, industrial and commercial green belts, etc.

→ Rural forestry: It lays emphasis on promotion of agro-forestry and community-forestry.

→ Agro-forestry: It is the raising of trees and agriculture crops on the same land inclusive of the waste patches.

• Community forestry: It involves the raising of trees on public or community land such as the village pasture and temple land, roadside, canal bank, strips along railway lines, and schools etc.

• Farm forestry is a term applied to the process under which farmers grow trees for commercial and non-commercial purposes on their farm lands.

(ii) How can people’s participation be effective in conserving forests and wildlife?


The government can make policies on the conservation of forests and wildlife but it is on the people who take part in this and make them successful. It is mostly the local people who take part in the illegal activities by damaging the environment for their benefits knowingly or unknowingly. The government need the cooperation of common people for ensuring the protection against the deforestation, poaching, hunting etc. This can effective in many ways:

• Holding a regular meeting of local people and make them aware of the advantages of conservation of forests and wildlife.
→ The government officials can inform them about the various policies of the government about the conservation and how they can be part of it.

• Incentives for the good work: The government can provide the incentives to the local people for their good work in protecting the local trees or wildlife which will encourage others to do the same work. Gradually, it will spread to mass scale.

• Various NGOs can also help in doing this activity by providing the skills to the people in conserving forests and wildlife through their experts.

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