Study Material and Notes of Ch 1 Development Class 10th Economics

Topics in the Chapter

• Overview
• What Development Promises —Different People, Different Goals.
• Income and Other Goals.
• National Development.
• How to Compare Different Countries or States?
• Income and Other Criteria.
• Public Facilities.
• Sustainability of Development.

    (i) Perspectives on development.
      (ii) Common indicators for development.
        (iii) Method for measuring development.
          (iv)Concept of purchasing power parity.
            What Development Promises - Different People, Different Goals
              → Development promises a real growth by enhancing total income and standard of living of a person.

              → Different people have different development goals. The development goals are varying from people to people.

              → For example, a girl from a rich urban family gets as much freedom as her brother and is able to decide what she wants to do in life. She is able to pursue her studies abroad.
                Income and Other Goals
                  → People prefer to earn more income for fulfilling their daily requirements of life. Companies provide material thing like, money. But people also want non-material thing like, freedom, security, and respect of others.

                  → Some companies provide less salary but offer regular employment which enhances sense of securities.

                  → In other case, some companies provide high salary but offer no job securities. They reduce sense of securities.
                    National Development
                      → National development refers to ability of a nation to improve standard of living of its citizens.

                      → Standards of living of citizens depend upon per capital income, Gross Domestic Product, literacy rate and availability of health etc. These factors also consider as measure of improvement.
                        How to Compare Different Countries or States?
                          → We can compare different countries or state on the basis of per capital income.

                          → We cannot take national income to compare different countries because each country has different population rate.

                          → Per capita income is calculated by dividing total income of a country to total population of that particular country.

                          → Per capita income of a country shows the standard of living of the citizens of that particular company.

                          → A country with higher per capita income is more developed than others with less per capita income.
                            Income and Other Criteria
                              → For achieving development goal of people, people not only want better income, they also want non-material thing like, freedom, security, and respect of others. 

                              → For development of a nation average income or per capital income is needed.
                              Per capita income of selected States

                              If per capita income were to be used as the measure of development, Haryana will be considered the most developed and Bihar the least developed state of the three. However, this is not true, if we look at the other criteria. 

                              Comparative data on Haryana, Kerala and Bihar

                              • Literacy Rate: It is the number of people above 7 years of age who are able to read and write with understanding. Higher the literacy rate, more developed a state will be. India has a literacy rate of 64%. Kerala has the highest literacy rate and Bihar has the lowest.

                              • Infant Mortality Rate: It is the number of children that die before attaining one year of age as a proportion of 1000 live births in a year. It indicates the development of health facilities in a country. In India, Kerala has the lowest IMR while Bihar has the highest.

                              • Net Attendance Ratio: It is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

                              • In this table:
                              → The first columns shows that in Kerala, out of 1000 children born, 12 died before completing one year of age but in Haryana, the proportion of children dying within one year of birth was 36, which is two times more than that of Kerala. This number is 44 in Bihar.
                              → Literacy rate in Kerala is 94 percent which is higher than Haryana (82%) and Bihar (62%).
                              → The last columns shows that in Kerala, 83 children out of 100 aged 14-15 are not attending school beyond Class 8 which is greater than Haryana (61) and Bihar (43).

                              Public Facilities

                              → Facilities which are provided by the government considered as public facility like schools, hospitals, community halls, transport, electricity etc.

                              → As we know that Punjab has more income than the average person in Kerala but Kerala has a low infant Mortality Rate because of better public system like, Public Distribution System which provide Health and nutritional status to the state.

                              → We need public facility because we are not able to purchase all things by money. We cannot able to buy a pollution free environment with the help of money.

                              Sustainability of Development

                              → Sustainable Development refers to development of human with at the same time sustaining the ability of natural system.

                              → It is helpful to fulfils the needs of the human being without harming the ability of the future generation.

                              → For sustainable development, we have to use non-renewable resources like carbon based originally designed fuel for the quantity how much we needed.

                              → Some renewable resources like groundwater will take long time for replenished. So, we should use that resource in finite quantity.

                              • Infant Mortality Ratio: Infant Mortality Ratio indicates the number of children who die before the age of one year, as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.

                              • Literacy Rate: Literacy Rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.

                              • Net Attendance Ratio: It is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years who attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

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