Study Material and Notes of Ch 3 Why do we need a Parliament Class 8th Civics

Topics in the Chapter

• Why should People Decide?
• People and their Representatives
• The Role of the Parliament
• Who are the People in Parliament?

Why should People Decide?

• The harsh experience of colonial rule as well as the participation of different people in the struggle
for freedom made the nationalists that all persons in independent India would be able to participate in making decisions.

• Thus, to fulfil the dreams and aspirations of the freedom struggle after the Constitution of independent India that laid down the principle of universal adult franchise, i.e. that all adult citizens of the country have the right to vote.

People and their Representatives

• The decision of people that creates a democratic government and decides about its functioning.

• The Parliament, which is made up of all representatives together, controls and guides the government.

The Role of the Parliament

• The country is divided into numerous constituencies and each of these constituencies elects one person to the Parliament.

•  Once elected, these candidates become Members of Parliament or MPs.
→ These MPs together make up the Parliament.

• The Lok Sabha is usually elected once every five years.

• After formation, the Parliament needs to perform the following functions:
→ To Select the National Government
→ To Control, Guide and Inform the Government
→ Law-Making

To Select the National Government

• The Parliament in India consists of the President, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

The Lok Sabha

• For a political party to form the government in Lo Sabha, they must have a majority of elected MPs. → Since there are 543 elected (plus 2 nominated) members in Lok Sabha, to have a majority
a party should have at least half the number i.e. 272 members or more.

• If different political parties join together to form the government then this is known as a coalition government. (This happens if any single party can't get clear majority in Lok Sabha).

• The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the ruling party in the Lok Sabha.

• From the MPs who belong to her party, the Prime Minister selects ministers to work with her to implement decisions.

The Rajya Sabha

• The Rajya Sabha functions primarily as the representative of the states of India in the Parliament.

• The Rajya Sabha can also initiate legislation and a bill is required to pass through the Rajya Sabha in order to become a law.

• The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of various states.
→ There are 233 elected members plus 12 members nominated by the President.

To Control, Guide and Inform the Government

• The Parliament, while in session, begins with a question hour.
→ Through question hour MPs can bring out information about the working of the government.

• The opposition party highlights drawbacks in various policies and programmes of the government and mobilise popular support for their own policies.
→ This helps in healthy functioning of a democracy.

• The Parliament’s approval is crucial for the government in all matters dealing with finances.

• The MPs as representatives of the people have a central role in controlling, guiding and informing Parliament.


• Law-making is a significant function of the Parliament.

Who are the People in Parliament?

• The Parliament has people from different backgrounds.
→ There are rural members as well members from regional parties.

• There has been an increase in political participation from the Dalit and backward castes and the minorities.

• Some seats are reserved in the Parliament for SCs and STs to give fair advantage historically marginalised section of the society.

NCERT Solutions of Chapter 3 Why do we need a Parliament

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