To study the external features of root, stem, leaf and flower of monocot and dicot plants - Lab Work

To study the external features of root, stem, leaf and flower of monocot and dicot plants - Science Practicals

Aim
To study the external features of root, stem, leaf and flower of monocot and dicot plants.

Theory
Angiosperms or flowering plants are the most dominant plants on the earth. They are divided into two major groups, namely monocots and dicots. Seeds of monocots, as the name suggests, have one cotyledon and those of dicots have two. Besides this major difference, there are many other distinct differences in their morphological and anatomical features. Such features enable us to differentiate between monocots and dicots even when their seeds are not available to check the number of cotyledons.

Materials Required
Plants of Hibiscus/ rose/ Petunia/ pea and grass/ maize/ bamboo/ lily/ Orchid/ any other ornamental herb with flowers and fruits, simple or dissecting microscope, a hand lens, slide, cover slip, and a razor blade.

Procedure
Step 1: From the list given above, a dicot and a monocot plant is selected with roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits.
Step 2: The differences in the external features of stem, leaf, roots, flowers, and seeds is observed carefully. For studying the root system, the roots are washed carefully and spread on a sheet of paper and their nature is studied.
Step 3: The leaves are studied for their shape and venation.
Step 4: The flower is observed carefully and the different floral parts are observed. The numbers of sepals, petals and stamens in the flower are counted. A transverse section of ovary is taken and the number of carpels are counted.
Step 5: The seed coat is removed and the number of cotyledons are counted.
Step 6: Observation is noted and diagrams are drawn.





Observations
Property Orchid Hibiscus
Venation Parallel venation. Reticulate venation.
Leaves Leaves are sessile. Leaves have stalks.
Root Adventitious roots. It has taproots.
Stem Weak stem. Strong stem.
Ovary Bicarpellary Tricarpellary
Flower Three petals and three sepals. Five petals and five sepals.
Cotyledon One cotyledon Two cotyledon

Results and Discussions
From the above observations, it can be concluded that Orchid is a monocot plant and Hibiscus is dicot plant.

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