NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 1 The Cold War Era Political Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 1 The Cold War Era Political Science Contemporary World Politics

Exercises

Page No: 15

1. Which among the following statements about the Cold War is wrong?
a) It was a competition between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies.
b) It was an ideological war between the superpowers. 
c) It triggered off an arms race. 
d) the US and USSR were engaged in direct wars

► d) the US and USSR were engaged in direct wars

2. Which among the following statements does not reflect the objectives of NAM
a) Enabling newly decolonised countries to pursue independent policies 
b) No to joining any military alliances 
c) Following a policy of ‘neutrality’ on global issues 
d) Focus on elimination of global economic inequalities

► c) Following a policy of ‘neutrality’ on global issues 

3. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements that describe the features of the military alliances formed by the superpowers.

a) Member countries of the alliance are to provide bases in their respective lands for the superpowers.
► Correct

b) Member countries to support the superpower both in terms of ideology and military strategy.
► Correct

c) When a nation attacks any member country, it is considered as an attack on all the member countries.
► Correct

d) Superpowers assist all the member countries to develop their own nuclear weapons.
► Wrong

4. Here is a list of countries. Write against each of these the bloc they belonged to during the Cold War.

a) Poland
► Eastern Alliance

b) France
► Western Alliance

c) Japan
► Western Alliance 

d) Nigeria 
► Non-Alignment

e) North Korea 
► Eastern Alliance

f) Sri Lanka
► Non-Alignment

5. The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments?

Answer

The Cold War did not eliminate rivalries between the two alliances, mutual suspicions led them to arm themselves to the teeth and to constantly prepare for war. Huge stocks of arms were considered necessary to prevent wars from taking place. This was known as arms race.
Cold war also led to several shooting wars such as Korean Crisis, Berlin Crisis, Congo Crisis and several others. The two sides understood that war might occur in spite of restraint. As both powers have nuclear weapons, there will be vast devastation all over the world and left no single side as the winner. Therefore, the US and USSR decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons. A stable balance of weapons, they decided, could be maintained through ‘arms control’.

6. Why did the superpowers have military alliances with smaller countries? Give three reasons.

Answer

The superpowers have military alliances with smaller countries because the smaller states were helpful for the superpowers in gaining access to 
• vital resources, such as oil and minerals
• territory, from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops
• locations from where they could spy on each other

Page No: 16

7. Sometimes it is said that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it. Do you agree with this? Give one example to support your position.

Answer

No, I do not agree with the statement that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it.
• The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, of military alliances, and of the balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well,• The western alliance, headed by the US, represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while
the eastern alliance, headed by the Soviet Union, was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism.
Thus, both powers trying to prove that their ideas are better than the other and most appropriate way of organising political, economic, and social life all over the world.

8. What was India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold War era? Do you think that this policy helped India’s interests?

Answer

India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold War era was neither negative nor passive.
• Despite being the founder member of NAM, India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries.
• India tried to reduce the differences between the alliances and thereby prevent differences from escalating into a full-scale war.
• Indian diplomats and leaders were often used to communicate and mediate between Cold War rivals such as in the Korea War in the early 1950s.
• During the Cold War, India repeatedly tried to activate those regional and international organisations, which were not a part of the alliances led by the US and USSR.
• India's Nehru reposed great faith in ‘a genuine commonwealth of free and cooperating nations’ that would play a positive role in softening, if not ending, the Cold War.
This policy of India towards US and USSR helped India's interest to take international decisions and stances. India was often able to balance one superpower against the other. Neither alliance system could take India for granted or bully it.

9. NAM was considered a ‘third option’ by Third World countries. How did this option benefit their growth during the peak of the Cold War?

Answer

The Cold War tended to divide the world into two rival alliances. It was in this context that nonalignment offered the newly decolonised countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America a third option—not to join either alliance.
The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) benefited the newly decolonised countries.
• It gives the Least Developed Countries (LDC) to control over their natural resources exploited by the developed Western countries,
• It obtains access to Western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and, therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries, 
• It reduces the cost of technology from the Western countries
• It also provides the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.
Thus, NAM as ‘third option’ by Third World countries benefited their growth during the peak of the Cold War.

10. What do you think about the statement that NAM has become irrelevant today. Give reasons to support your opinion.

Answer

No, I don not think NAM has become irrelevant today. It still contains some core values and enduring ideas.
• After the end of the cold war between superpowers, it started giving more importance to economic issues than political issues.
• After the disintegration of USSR, US is the only superpower left. Now, it is essential for NAM to keep checking the US from making biased decisions.
• NAM is formed by Third World countries in which developmental task is not yet completed. It ensures that these countries liberalise their economies in order to pave way for faster development.

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