Solution of Previous Year Question Paper Class 10th Social Science Summative Assessment II 2015

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1. Democracies are based on political equality. This is because in a democracy every adult has the right to vote. No adult can be debarred from voting on the grounds of race, religion, sex, caste etc. Also, every vote is equal. Democracies follow one vote - one value. Universal Adult Franchise is an important political outcome of democracy. Thus, it is based on political equality.

2. The Haldia sea-port was set up to support the Calcutta (Kolkata) Port. It helped reduce volume of trade dependency of Kolkata port. It also helps with foreign trade.

3. When a citizen has the ability - by the government - find out about the norms and procedures followed by the government and institutions in taking decisions, it is said to be transparent. The fact that a democratic government allows this is transparency.

4. Concentration camps are similar to prisons. Rebels, protesters and wrongdoers were often sent there in large numbers. Concentration camps denied the prisoners of their rights and the very term can evoke pictures of inhumane and unethical torture. In Vietnam, the followers of Hyunh Phu So were sent to Concentration camps.

5. While purchasing gold jewellery, we must look for Hallmark logo. This logo is for precious metals.

6. The Consumer Protection Act of 1986 (COPRA) was enacted by the Indian parliament to protect consumers from various forms of exploitation by producers and shopkeepers in the markets.

7. In the early Barter system of trade, one important requirement was double-coincidence of wants. For example, if a wheat seller wanted shoes, he would have to look for a shoe-seller who wanted wheat.
Money acts as a Medium of exchange. In the above situation, the wheat seller can exchange his commodities into currency and then buy shoes. He just has to search for a buyer. Money prevents the need to go overboard searching for a 'specific' buyer and it thus acts as a medium of exchange.

8. A partisan is one who tends to favour or support a specific party. The ability to favour one side or inability to take a balanced decision is known as partisanship. Parties involve partisanship as they get immense support from the locals. Partisans tend to vote for the Political Party they favour and tend to support the party.

9. Democracies are accountable and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

• While other forms of government such as dictatorships tend to take quicker decisions, they hardly ever follow procedures. But, in the case of a democracy, every single procedure is followed. And though this takes time and decisions making is slower, it is accountable as, no procedure is skipped also decisions are deliberated and negotiated by the people for the people.

• Democracies are responsive to the needs of people and their expectations. This is because, democracies are of the people, by the people and for the people. So, democracies are by the citizen themselves. And when an issue comes the representatives chosen by the people debate and deliberate to come up with the best decision for the people.

• As a result, they are acceptable and responsive.

10. The problems faced by the peasants of Awadh are:

• Many of the peasants were not rich. And the agricultural depressions of their time period had left many of the economically deprived. Even then, the government refused to revise revenue collection. So many of them were in huge debt as they couldn't pay revenue.

• They were forced to contribute 'begar'. Begar was basically extreme labour without payment. This was a problem for the peasants as they weren't getting any income out of their contributions and found it very hard to make ends for the lives.

• Many had the problems of oppressive landlords and talukdars. These landlords would force them into contributing labour with very less payment. Tenants were often evicted from their lands to prevent them from getting any lease over the land.

11. India is one of the few countries which has abundance of sunlight:

• Being placed near the equator, India has direct rays of sunlight and should make use of this energy.

• In solar energy, the photovoltaic cells convert the solar energy obtained from the sun into electrical energy.

• Solar energy can solve the energy problem to some extent in India.

• There are many rural places in India which are deprived of energy. Strategically placing solar panels there would solve the energy problems and bring energy to the poor.

• Solar energy is also quite renewable and harmless. It acts as an efficient substitute to non-renewable fossil fuels and non-ecofriendly nuclear power plants.

12. Tourism is an important aspect of foreign trade in India.

• Places like Goa, Rajasthan and Srinagar are tourism hotspots. Tourism here helps improve the economy of the country.

• When foreign tourists visit India, there are chance of them learning local culture and obtaining vital informations which they may take back to the country to regulate foreign trade.

• India is an important importer and exporter of jewellery. When tourists come and see these items, there is a high chance of them ordering more - that to with the help of information technology and globalisation.

• Tourists also help in making products 'better' with their westernised knowledge. As a result products for trade are now of better quality and are in higher demand.

13. On the 31st January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to the Viceroy - Lord Irwin. In it were eleven demands of wide and varied range to be generic to the society as a whole and to meet every person needs.

• He had also said that, if the demands were not met by the deadline, he would erupt a nation wide protest based on Civil Disobedience.

• One of the main demand was the abolish of the Salt tax. The British had unfairly and impractically levied heavy tax on salt. Gandhiji and his trusted followers found this impractical and unfair as salt was common commodity used by the rich and poor equally. In salt, he found a method to unite the society.

• However, Lord Irwin was unwilling to negotiate.

• As a result, Gandhiji and 78 of his trusted followers from his Ashram at Sabarmati to the coast of Dandi. This is known as the Salt March. He walked 240 miles in a span of 24 days and wherever he stopped, people came from near and far to listen to him speak.

• On the final day, he picked a handful of salt from the sea and manufactured the salt illegally.

• This became an effective tool of resistance against colonialism as:
(i) Foreign cloth was boycotted and liquid shops were picketed.
(ii) People followed Gandhi's footsteps and manufactured salt on their own.
(iii) Many gave up the government jobs and titles.
(iv) The nation emerged out in Civil Disobedience Movement where they refused to obey the government. They broke laws and demanded freedom.

14. Chhotangpur Plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries because:

(i) The area has a proximity of raw material. It is strategically placed near few important iron ores.

(ii) The area receives cheap and has an abundance of raw material. Since it is near the iron ores, it gets the necessary raw materials for cheap.

(iii) It receives cheap labour from nearby states. States like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha have many unemployed youth who can easily find jobs in these industry.

(iv) It is placed near the markets. Both national and international trade flourish due to its closeness to the market ports.

15. "There is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world."

• This is because democracies:
(i) Promotes equality
(ii) Enhance the dignity of citizens.
(iii) Improve the quality of decision making.
(iv) Provide a medium to resolve conflicts.
(v) Allow people to correct their mistakes.

• Also, democratic governments are accountable, legitimate, responsive and transparent.

• One important outcomes of democracies is Universal Adult Franchise.

• They are of the people, by the people and for the people.

• In democracies, eventually, people's needs and expectations are met.

16. "A challenge is an opportunity for progress."

• Democracies face the challenges of foundation, expansion and deepening. But it can be noted that overcoming any of these challenges is definitely a mode of progress for the country.

• Let us take for example a foundational challenge. Let us say, a certain country, which is non-democratic, is trying to become democratic. Challenges faced by this country may include keeping the military away from power. This challenge is definitely an opportunity for progress. By working together, the country can overcome this challenge and progress further into democracy.

• This can also be seen with countries experiencing the expansion and deepening challenge. Any challenge overtaken is definitely progress for the country.

• Thus, a challenge is an opportunity for the progress.

17. In the early days, when barter system was prevalent around the world, people used grains, cattle or any other commodity of theirs for exchange. Sometimes, when one wanted the value of wheat equal to half a cow, he would have to cut the animal up. Also, these commodities had uses of their own. For example, grains were used for food. Exchange were not defined.

• When the idea of currency came into place, many kings like the Mughals used precious metals like gold and silver. In king Akbar's days, men used gold mohur. But the value of the gold would have been more than the value of the currency.

• In Modern currency, coins are made of cheap metals like copper, or aluminium and its value would be lesser than that of the currency. Notes are also made with paper. Thus the modern form of currency is accepted as a medium of exchange as exchange rates are defined, one cannot devalued it and one doesn't have to reduce other commodity.

18. "Foreign trade integrates the markets in different countries."

(i) Foreign trade allows imports and exports of products in the market. When a product is imported, it provides competition to the local producers. This allows the local producers to make their products for their competition with the first products. Thus, integrating the producers and thereby countries.

(ii) Foreign trade helps in equalising monetary ratios. Globalization helps in this. By creating a monetary ratio in the market, different countries market get integrated.

(iii) Foreign products brought in by trade provide choice to the buyers. Let us take example of Chinese toys in the Indian market. Chinese toys are cheaper and are more modernised than Indian toys. This definitely would attract customers to purchase Chinese toys. Currently in India, over 70-80% of the toys in the markets are Chinese toys. This means, Chinese toys have been in huge demand. As a result, more markets buy more Chinese toys thus creating more jobs for the producer and thus integrating markets.

19. The right to seek redressal is a consumer right which allows the consumers to seek compensation against any form of exploitation in the market.
Let us take the example of man who send Rs 4000 to his daughter in a far off village via postal services. When this man comes to know that money has not reached his daughter, he confronts the post office. But the customer services of the post office just vaguely answers his queries unsatisfactorily.
Now, under the right to seek redressal, he can approach the consumer court and has right to seek redressal. The judge will later on announce the verdict.

20. • Paul Bernard was an influential writer and policy maker in Vietnam.

• He believed that the main objective of colonization was economic development.

• He said that the economy of Vietnam was very poor due to its high population, low productivity and indebtedness of the peasants.

• Many peasants were indentured labourers. Indentured labourers are those who worked mainly in plantations under contract. Their rights weren't specified, any landlords could imprison them if they refused to work.

• The main source of economic development in Vietnam was from rice cultivation and rubber plantation.

• Paul Bernard believed that if the French take the steps to improve the economy, colonization would be fulfilled.

• Thus, he was in favour of draining the Mekong delta and the building of railways.

21. • Banks are institutions which allow people to deposit savings availing interest and also lend money to those in need at a rate of interest.

• Banks in India keep 15% of the deposited money on a daily basis in case people wish to withdraw the money on demand. Since all depositors won't withdraw all their money on the same day, banks follow this procedure.

• Banks allow people to take loans. It is a formal sector for credit. Many of the poor people can get these loans for many reasons. They could use the money for self-employment or for the betterment of their current job etc. For example, peasants may use these loans to buy machines, fertilizers, seeds, pesticides etc. for their agricultural work. Or an unemployed rural women may take these loans to et self-employed and start her own business. In whatever manner, employment of many plays an important role in economy.

• The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the only legal institution allowed to make and produce money. It also keeps check on other banks to see if loans are being given out fairly.

• The difference in the rate of interest in loans and demand depositors proves as income for the bank employees.

• Self Help Groups (SHGs) and companies avail loans from the bank to employ the poor.

• Thus, Banks play an important role in the economy of India.

22. • In cities, originally, the Non-cooperation Movement started like wild fire.
→ Many boycotted government jobs, turned over government titles, lawyers refused to go to court. Students and teachers boycotted schools. Liquor shops were picketed.

→ The council elections were boycotted except in the province of Madras where the Justice Party - the party of Non-Brahmins - felt that entering the elections was the only way of gaining power which was something only Brahmins had access to.

→ Foreign cloth was boycotted.

→ English institutions were boycotted.

• On an economic front, the Non-Cooperation had a tremendous effect.

→ With the boycotting of foreign cloth, local khadi producers now stood a chance in the market again. Also, the value of foreign cloth dropped from ₹102 crores to ₹57 crore in a span of one year. People built bonfires and burnt foreign cloth.

→ By boycotting British institutions, the British faced a huge loss.

→ However, the Non-Cooperation Movement lost its momentum. This was because khaki was definitely more expensive and laborious than foreign cloth. Also, there weren't Indian institutions for the boycotted British institutions.

23. The National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) is an ISO certified corporation. It has several thermal power all over the country. Over the years, it has noted the due harm caused by Thermal power plants to the environment. It has come up with pro-active approaches. for preservation of the natural resources and environment.

(i) Making use of latest technology: Latest technology tend to be very environment-friendly and using the guidelines and technology prevent environmental degradation.

(ii) Making use of ash: After burning fossil fuels, like coal and petroleum, for thermal energy, ash remains. Ash is actually quite effective when heated in producing energy.

(iii) Ash-water and Ash-pond management: Making use of local water bodies, the NTPC feels that Ash-water and Ash-pond management is another eco-friendly method.

(iv) Shelter Belts: Placing Shelter near an inbetween thermal power plants will definitely reduce the harmful effect of the thermal power plants.

(v) Keeping Check: By keeping an eye on the ecology and maintaining some information, NTPC feels that ecological balance will be maintained.

24. "Globalisation and greater competition among producers has been advantageous to consumers."

• The above statement is definitely true. Globalisation has been seen in varied forms, especially with the establishment of Multi-National Corporation (MNCs). Not only have MNCs have provided new job opportunities., bu it has brought out huge choices in the markets. Consumers now have a wide range of products to choose from and can decide which products which they wish to buy.

• Indian companies also have advantages with globalisation. Many pursue on to become MNCs themselves. For example, Tata Motors (auto-mobile), Infosys (Software and technology), Ranbauxy (Medicals) and Asian paints are all leading MNCs which are found in international products.

• Let us take example of Chinese toys in the Indian market. Chinese toys tend to be cheaper and more modern than Indian toys. Infact, they come up with innovative designs. The Indian consumers would definitely tend to buy. As a result, many shopkeepers would introduce more Chinese toys. Infact 70-80% of the toys in the market now are made in China.

• Competition among producers had been advantageous to consumer as it gave them an open choice where they can decide what they wish to consume. For example, In the early 1900s, Ford an ambassador was the only automobiles available in India. But now with globalisation and production competition, there are several hundred brands in th market for people to choose from with various functions and features.

25. The French believed that colonies were necessary for the French to get new raw materials.They also lt that by colonizing, they were bringing the advantages of civilization to the primitive and backward.

• The French began this feat by developing the Mekong Delta region.

• The Mekong delta was a deltaic region in Vietnam was not being used to its capacity.

• The French drained the Mekong delta and then made the Vietnamese peasants cultivate rice in the area.

• Rice cultivation increased from 2,74,000 in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million hectares in 1930.

• With the abundance of rice, the Vietnamese thus started exporting the rice and became the second largest exporter of rice by exporting two-thirds of the total export.

• The French also were set on a mission to build railways to make transportation of raw materials easier.

• They successfully built railways from Vietnam to Yunan and later Vietnam to Siam.

26. We feel that democracy is a better form a government than any other form because:

(i) It promotes equality: In democracy all are equal under the law. A political outcome of democracies is Universal Adult Franchise where every adult have equal right to vote.

(ii) It enhances the dignity of the citizen: In democracies, no citizen can be debarred from voting rights or contesting elections on the basis of race, religion , gender caste and creed.

(iii) It improves the quality of decision making: In democracy every single decision follows all the norms and procedures and is deliberated and debated on, thus improving the quality of decision making.

(iv) It provides room to resolve conflicts: If any conflicts arise, a democratic government allows people to negotiate and come to terms.

(v) It allows room to correct mistakes: In democracies, if mistakes are made, they can be corrected easily.

(vi) Accountable, legitimate and responsive: Democracies tend to be more accountable, legitimate and responsive. This is because, they follow all procedures. And the are made by the people.

27. • The most abundantly available fossil fuels in India is coal.

(i) When plants and animals decompose in swampy and marshy areas, they form peat. Peat is a low grade coal with low carbon content, high moisture and low heating capacity.

(ii) Low grade brown coal is known as lignite. It has high moisture content and is mainly used to produce electricity. Example - Neyveli in Tamil Nadu make use of lignite.

(iii) Coal which has been underground and experienced high temperatures is bituminous. It is used in smelting iron.

(iv) Anthracite the highest grade of coal.

28. When people come together to contest elections and hold power in the government its is known as political party.
Political parties tend to come up with policies and programmes which the pleasant to the people out of which, decide which party to support.
The 3 components of a political party are:
(i) Party leader: They tend to make decisions and choose candidates for the party.
(ii) Active members: They are the members of the party who execute the party vision.
(iii) Followers: or partisans. They tend to favour a party.

(A) Madras
(B) Kheda
(C) Chauri Chaura

(A) Durg
(B) Porbander


Question No. 29 map social science previous year question paper 2015


Question No. 30 map social science previous year question paper 2015

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