NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 3 The Bases of Human Behaviour Psychology

Page No: 63

Review Questions

1. How does the evolutionary perspective explain the biological basis of behaviour?


The evolutionary perspective explains the biological behaviour by indicating the physiological as well as behavioural changes that occur due to the evolutionary process. These are necessary for the survival of species. These evolutions have resulted due to the influence of environmental demands. Some behaviours play an obvious role in evolution. For example, the ability to find food, avoid predators, and defend one’s young are the objectives related to the survival of the organisms as well as their species. Modern human beings possess some features for several thousand years. Three important features of modern human beings differentiate them from their ancestors:
• a bigger and developed brain with increased capacity for cognitive behaviours
• ability to walk upright on two legs, and
• a free hand with a workable opposing thumb

2.  Describe how neurons transmit information?


Neurons have dendrites, axon, soma and terminal buttons to transmit information. Dendrites receive the incoming neural impulses from adjacent neurons or directly from the sense organs in electrochemical form. The received signals are passed on to soma and then to axon so that the information is relayed to another neuron or to muscles. The axon conducts the information along its length. At the terminal point the axon branches into small structures, called terminal buttons which have the capability for transmitting information to another neuron, gland and muscle.

3. Name the four lobes of the cerebral cortex. What functions do they perform?


The four lobes of the cerebral cortex and their functions are:
• Frontal lobe: It is mainly concerned with cognitive functions, such as attention, thinking, memory, learning, and reasoning. It also exerts inhibitory effects on autonomic and emotional responses.
• Parietal lobe: It is mainly concerned with cutaneous sensations and their coordination with visual and auditory sensations.
• Temporal lobe: It is primarily concerned with the processing of auditory information. It also helps in memorising symbolic sounds and words and understanding of speech and written language.
• Occipital lobe: It is mainly concerned with visual information. It also interprets visual impulses, memorises visual stimuli and helps in colour visual orientation.

4. Name the various endocrine glands and the hormones secreted by them. How does the endocrine system affect our behaviour?


Endocrine glands
1. Pituitary gland (a) Growth Hormones
(b) Gonadotropic
2. Thyroid gland (a) Thyroxin
3. Adrenal gland (a) Corticoids
(b) Epinephrin
(c) Norepinephrine
4. Pancreas (a) Insulin
5. Gonads (a) Estrogens
(b) Progesterone - in females
(c) Androgens - in males
(d) Testosterone - in males

The endocrine glands play a crucial role in our behaviour. They secrete specific chemical substances, called hormones, which control some of our behaviours. The normal functioning of all hormones is
crucial to our behavioural well-being. Without a balanced secretion of hormones, the body would be unable to maintain the state of internal equilibrium. Without the increased secretion of hormones during the times of stress, we would not be able to react effectively to potential dangers in our environment. Also, without the secretion of hormones at specific times in our lives, we would not be able to grow, mature and reproduce

5.  How does the autonomic nervous system help us in dealing with an emergency situation?


The autonomic nervous system controls activities which are normally not under direct control of individuals. It has two divisions: Sympathetic division and Parasympathetic division. It deals
with emergencies when the action must be quick and powerful, such as in situations of fight or flight. During this period, the digestion stops, blood flows from internal organs to the muscles and breathing rate, oxygen supply, heart rate, and blood sugar level increases.

6. Explain the meaning of culture and describe its important features.


Culture refers to the man-made part of the environment. It comprises diverse products of the behaviour of many people, including ourselves. These products can be material objects such as tools,
sculptures, ideas such as categories, norms or social institutions such as family, school.
Its important features are:
• It includes behavioural products of others who preceded us.
• It contains values that will be expressed and a language in which to express them.
• It contains a way of life that will be followed by most of us who grow up in that context.
• It is identified with a historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols.

7.  Do you agree with the statement that ‘biology plays an enabling role, while specific aspects of behaviour are related to cultural factors’? Give reasons in support of your answer.


Yes, biology plays an enabling role, while specific aspects of behaviour are related to cultural factors. Many of our behaviours are influenced by hormones and many others occur as reflexive responses but human behaviour is moe complex. A major reason for this complexity is that human have a culture to regulate their behaviour. For example, sexual behaviour involves hormones and reflexive reactions in animals and human beings alike. While among animals sexual behaviour is fairly simple and reflexive but it is so complex among human beings that it can hardly be described as reflexive. Partner preferences are a key feature of human sexual behaviour. The bases of these preferences widely differ within and across societies. Human sexual behaviour is also governed by many rules, standards, values, and laws. Thus, biological factors alone cannot help us very much in understanding human behaviour. Human nature has evolved through an interplay of biological and cultural forces.

8. Describe the main agents of socialisation.


The main agents of socialisation are:

→ Parents: They have most direct and significant impact on children’s development. Parents encourage and discourage certain behaviours among children. They also arrange to put children in a variety of situations that provide them with a variety of positive experiences, learning opportunities, and challenges. The conditions of life in which parents live such as poverty, illness, job stress, nature of family also influence the styles they adopt in socialising children. Grandparental proximity and network of social relationships also play role in child socialisation directly or through parental influences.

→ School: This provides children with a fairly organised set up for interaction with teachers and peers. Children learn not only cognitive skills such as reading, writing but also many social skills such as ways of behaving with elders and age mates, accepting roles. They learn and internalise the norms and rules of society also several other positive qualities, such as self-initiative, self-control, responsibility, and creativity are encouraged which make children more self- reliant.

→ Peer group: It provides children not only with a good opportunity to be in company of others. Qualities like sharing, trust, mutual understanding, role acceptance and fulfilment develop in interaction with peers. Children also learn to assert their own point of view and accept and adapt to those of others. Development of self-identity is greatly facilitated by the peer group.

→ Media influences: Children learn about many things from television, newspapers, books and cinema. Adolescents and young adults often derive their models from television and cinema. The exposure to violence on television is a major issue of discussion, since studies indicate that observing violence on television enhances aggressive behaviour among children. There is need to use this agent of socialisation in a better way in order to prevent children from developing undesirable behaviours.

9. How can we distinguish between enculturation and socialisation? Explain.


It refers to all learning that takes place without direct, deliberate teaching. It is a deliberate process that takes place through agencies like family, school, peer group and media.
It refers to all learning that occurs in human life because of its availability in our socio-cultural context. It is a process by which individuals acquire knowledge, skills and dispositions, which enable them to participate as effective members of groups and society.
It takes place through observation. It takes place through interaction.

10. What is meant by acculturation? Is acculturation a smooth process? Discuss.


Acculturation refers to cultural and psychological changes resulting from contact with other cultures. Contacts may be direct, indirect, voluntary or involuntary.
The smoothness of acculturation depends upon the re-socialisation of the people. Sometimes people find it easy to learn these new things, and if their learning has been successful, shifts in their behaviour easily take place in the direction of the group that brings in acculturation. In this situation transition to a new life is relatively smooth. On the other hand, in many situations people experience difficulties in dealing with new demands of change. They find change difficult, and are thrown into a
state of conflict. This situation is relatively painful not so smooth.

11. Discuss the acculturative strategies adopted by individuals during the course of acculturation.


The acculturative strategies adopted by individuals during the course of acculturation are:
• Integration : It refers to an attitude in which there is an interest in both, maintaining one’s original culture and identity, while staying in daily interaction with other cultural groups.
• Assimilation : It refers to an attitude, which people do not wish to maintain their cultural identity, and they move to become an integral part of the other culture.
• Separation : It refers to an attitude in which people seem to place a value on holding on to their original culture, and wish to avoid interaction with other cultural groups.
• Marginalisation : It refers to an attitude in which there is little possibility or interest in one’s cultural maintenance, and little interest in having relations with other cultural groups.

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