NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 4 Social Justice

NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 4 Social Justice Political Science

Page No: 66

Exercises

1. What does it mean to give each person his/her due? How has the meaning of “giving each his due” changed over time?

Answer

Giving each person his/her due means that providing justice by ensuring the well-being of the people.
The meaning of “giving each his due” changed over time, In today's world, it means understanding of what is due to each person as a human being. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant argued that if all persons are granted dignity then what is due to each of them is the opportunity to develop their talents and pursue their chosen goals.

2. Briefly discuss the three principles of justice outlined in the chapter? Explain each with examples.

Answer

Three principles of justice with examples are:

• Equal Treatment for Equals: It is the principle of treating equals equally as all individuals share certain characteristics as human beings. Therefore, they deserve equal rights and equal treatment. It includes civil rights like right to life, liberty and property, political rights like right to vote and social rights related to equal social opportunities. The people should not be discriminated against on grounds of class, caste, race or gender. They should be judged on the basis of their work and actions.
For example: if two persons from different castes perform the same kind of work, whether it be breaking stones or delivering Pizzas, they should receive the same kind of reward.

• Proportionate Justice: It is the principle of rewarding people in proportion to the scale and quality of their effort. It would be fair and just to reward different kinds of work differently if we take into account factors such as the effort required, the skills required, the possible dangers involved in that work, and so on. The principle of equal treatment needs to be balanced with the principle of proportionality. For example: The reward and compensation of police officer and clerk should be different according to skill and dangers involved.

• Recognition of Special Needs: This principle is for a society to take into account special needs of people while distributing rewards or duties. This is a way of promoting social justice. Physical disabilities, age or lack of access to good education or health care, are some of the factors which are considered grounds for special treatment in many countries. For example: The reservations of government jobs for people belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Tribes.

3. Does the principle of considering the special needs of people conflict with the principle of equal treatment for all?

Answer

No, the principle of considering the special needs of people does not conflict with the principle of equal treatment for all because the principle of treating equals equally could imply that people who are not equal in certain important respects could be treated differently. People with special needs or disabilities could be considered unequal in some particular respect thus special treatment require for integration with society.

4. How does Rawls use the idea of a veil of ignorance to argue that fair and just distribution can be defended on rational grounds?

Answer

Under idea of a veil of ignorance, only way we a person arrive at a fair and just rule is if he/she imagine themselves to be in a situation in which he/she have to make decisions about how society should be organised. There is complete ignorance about their possible position and status in society therefore he/she would rationally decide from the point of view of the worst-off. It would be sensible in this situation for everyone to ensure that all resources are available equally to all persons. Thus, Rawls, with his idea of 'veil of ignorance', is able to prove that fair and just distribution can be defended on rational grounds.

5. What are generally considered to be the basic minimum requirements of people for living a healthy and productive life? What is the responsibility of governments in trying to ensure this minimum to all?

Answer

Housing, supply of clean water, basic amount of nourishment to remain healthy, education and minimum wage are the basic minimum requirements of people for living a healthy and productive life.
The responsibility of governments in trying to ensure this minimum to all are:
• Government should encourage private agencies to provide services such as health care, education etc. and make policies that should try to empower people to buy those services.
• It might also be necessary for the government to give special help to the old and the sick who cannot compete.
• It should make availability of good quality goods and services at a cost people can afford.
• Government should maintain a framework of laws and regulations to ensure that competition between individuals remains free of coercion and other obstacles in market.

6. Which of the following arguments could be used to justify state action to provide basic minimum conditions of life to all citizens?

(a) Providing free services to the poor and needy can be justified as an act of charity.
► No, it is unjustified state action to provide basic minimum conditions of life to all citizens as services to the poor and needy are their rights. The government should not give these as charity.

(b) Providing all citizens with a basic minimum standard of living is one way of ensuring equality of opportunity.
► Yes, it is justified state action to provide basic minimum conditions of life to all citizens because it is basic responsibility of the government to provide opportunities for citizens.

(c) Some people are naturally lazy and we should be kind to them.
► No, it is unjustified state action to provide basic minimum conditions of life to all citizens as laziness is not physical handicap.

(d) Ensuring basic facilities and a minimum standard of living to all is a recognition of our shared humanity and a human right.
► Yes, it is justified state action to provide basic minimum conditions of life to all citizens.

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