NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 4 Reproductive Health Biology

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 4 Reproductive Health Biology

Page No: 66

Exercises

1. What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?

Answer

Reproductive health refers to healthy reproductive organs with normal functions also it includes physical, emotional, behavioural, and social aspects of reproduction. It helps in preventing various sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, etc., especially those in the adolescent age group. Educating people, about available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care of the mother and child, importance of breast feeding, equal opportunities for the male and the female child, etc., would address the importance of bringing up socially conscious healthy families of desired size. It also helps in reducing social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crimes, etc. This will help in building a socially responsible and healthy society.

2. Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.

Answer

The aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario are:
• Creating awareness among masses about hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), available contraceptive methods, case of pregnant mothers, adolescence, etc.
• Providing medical assistance and care to people in reproduction-related problems like pregnancy, delivery, STDs, abortions, contraception, menstrual problems, infertility, etc.

3. Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?

Answer

Yes, sex education is necessary in schools to provide right information to the young so as to discourage children from believing in myths and having misconceptions about sex-related aspects. Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), AIDS, etc., would help them to lead a reproductively healthy life.

4. Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.

Answer

Yes, the reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years. The areas of improvement are:
• Better awareness about sex related matters.
• Increased number of medically assisted deliveries and better post-natal care leading to decreased maternal and infant mortality rates.
• Increased number of couples with small families.
• Better detection and cure of STDs and overall increased medical facilities for all sex-related problems.

5. What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?

Answer

The suggested reason for population explosion are:
• Rapid decline in death rate
• Decline in maternal mortality rate
• Decline in infant mortality rate
• Increase in number of people in reproducible age

6. Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons

Answer

Yes, the use of contraceptives is justified because
• These help in controlling the rapid growth of human population.
• These do not interfere with the sexual desire or sexual act.
• These are also helpful in preventing unwanted pregnancies and controlling STDs.

7. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?

Answer

Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option because it will lead to permanent infertility also it will stop the secretions of various important hormones necessary for body.

8. Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.

Answer

Yes, the ban is necessary because in our country it is being misused to detect the sex of the child before birth and then aborting if it is a female.

9. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.

Answer

Some methods to assist infertile couples to have children are:
• Test tube baby programme: The ova from the wife/donor (female) and sperms from the husband/donor (male) are collected and are induced to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory. Then, zygote produced is then transferred into the fallopian tube of a normal female.
• Gamete Intra fallopian transfer (GIFT): Transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce ova, but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation.
• Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A sperm is directly injected into the ovum.
• Artificial insemination (AI): The semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus of the female.

10. What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?

Answer

The measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs are:
• Avoid sex with unknown partners/multiple partners.
• Always use condoms during coitus.
• In case of doubt, contact a qualified doctor for early detection and get complete treatment if diagnosed with disease.

11. State True/False with explanation

(a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
► True, due to some internal factors abortions could happen spontaneously too.

(b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
►False, Infertility is defined as the inability of the couple to produce baby even after unprotected sexual co-habitation and it might occur due to abnormalities/defects in either male or female or both.

(c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
► False, Complete lactation is a natural method of contraception but it is limited till lactation period, which continues till six months after parturition.

(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)
► True, Creating awareness about sex related aspects provides necessary information about reproductive health.

12. Correct the following statements:

(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
► Surgical methods of contraception prevent the flow of gamete during intercourse.

(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
► All sexually transmitted diseases are not completely curable.

(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
► Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the urban women

(d) In E.T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
► In E.T. technique, 8 celled embryos are transferred into the fallopian tube while more than 8 celled embryos are transferred into the uterus.

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