NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 3 Election and Representation Political Science

Page No: 75


1. Which of the following resembles most a direct democracy?
a. Discussions in a family meeting
b. Election of the class monitor
c. Choice of a candidate by a political party
d. Decisions taken by the Gram Sabha
e. Opinion polls conducted by the media


b. Election of the class monitor
d. Decisions taken by the Gram Sabha

2. Which of the following tasks are not performed by the Election Commission?
a. Preparing the Electoral Rolls
b. Nominating the candidates
c. Setting up polling booths
d. Implementing the model code of conduct
e. Supervising the Panchayat elections


b. Nominating the candidates
e. Supervising the Panchayat elections

3. Which of the following is common to the method of election of the members of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha?
a. Every citizen above the age of 18 is an eligible voter
b. Voter can give preference order for different candidates
c. Every vote has equal value
d. The winner must get more than half the votes
► c. Every vote has equal value

4. In the First Past the Post system, that candidate is declared winner who
a. Secures the largest number of postal ballots
b. Belongs to the party that has highest number of votes in the country
c. Has more votes than any other candidate in the constituency
d. Attains first position by securing more than 50% votes
► c. Has more votes than any other candidate in the constituency

5. What is the difference between the system of reservation of constituencies and the system of separate electorate? Why did the Constitution makers reject the latter?


In system of reservation of constituencies, all voters in a constituency are eligible to vote but the candidates must belong to only a particular community or social section for which the seat is reserved whereas in the system of separate electorate, for electing a representative from a particular community, only those voters would be eligible who belong to that community.
The constitution makers reject the system of separate electorate because it went against their purpose of unity, secularism and a state that is free from discrimination.

6. Which of the following statements are incorrect? Identify and correct them by substituting, adding or rearranging only one word or phrase.

a. FPTP system is followed for all the elections in India.
► Incorrect. FPTP system is followed for Panchayats, Legislative Assemblies and the Lok Sabha elctions.

b. Election Commission does not supervise Panchayat and Municipal elections.
► Corrcet

c. President of India cannot remove an Election Commissioner.
► Incorrect, President of India can remove an Election Commissioner on the recommendation of both houses of the Parliament.

d. Appointment of more than one Election Commissioners in the Election Commission is mandatory.
► Incorrect. Appointment of more than one Election Commissioner in the Election Commission is not mandatory.

7. Indian electoral system aims at ensuring representation of socially disadvantaged sections. However we are yet to have even 10 percent women members in our legislatures. What measures would you suggest to improve the situation?


The percent of women members would improve through following measures:
• Using proportional representation system, we can ensure the proper representation of women in legislature according to their percentage in population.
• Also, we can have reserved constituencies from which seat is reserved for women which ensure proper representation of women.

8. Here are some wishes expressed in a conference to discuss a constitution for a new country. Write against each of these whether FPTP or Proportional Representation system is more suited to meet each of these wishes.

a. People should clearly know who is their representative so that they can hold him or her personally accountable.
► FPTP system

b. We have small linguistic minorities who are spread all over the country; we should ensure fair representation to them.
► Proportional representation system

c. There should be no discrepancy between votes and seats for different parties.
► Proportional representation system

d. People should be able to elect a good candidate even if they do not like his or her political party.
► FPTP system

9. A former Chief Election Commissioner joined a political party and contested elections. There are various views on this issue. One view is that a former Election Commissioner is an independent citizen and has a right to join any political party and to contest election. According to the other view, leaving this possibility open can affect the impartiality of the Election Commission. So, former
Election Commissioners must not be allowed to contest any elections. Which position do you agree with and why?


The former Election Commissioner is an independent citizen and has a right to join any political party and to contest election. After leaving the post of election commissioner, he/she became an ordinary citizen and just like any citizen he/she has all rights which a citizen have. He/She has no responsibility of conducting fair election so they can be a part of election as it is their right.

10. “Indian democracy is now ready to shift from a crude First Past the Post system to a system of Proportional Representation”. Do you agree with this statement? Give your reasons for or against this statement.


Indian democracy is not yet ready to replace the First Past the Post system with Proportional Representation because

• Proportional representation system complicated system which would be difficult to work in a sub-continental country like India.

• In PR system, voters have only choice to choose a party and the representatives are elected on the
basis of party lists. There is no representative for one locality which would be held accountable.

• Indian is a vast country with a large number of ethnic and social groups. PR system would encourage each community to form its own party which endanger the social fabric of the country.

• PR based election may not be suitable for giving a stable government in a parliamentary system.

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