NCERT Solutions for Class 7th: Ch 10 Eighteenth-Century Political Formations History

NCERT Solutions for Class 7th: Ch 10 Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Our Pasts 2

Page No: 153

Let’s recall

1. Match the following:
subadar a revenue farmer
faujdar a high noble
ijaradar                   provincial governor
misl Maratha peasant warriors
chauth a Mughal military commander
kunbis a band of Sikh warriors
umara tax levied by the Marathas

Answer

subadar provincial governor
faujdar a Mughal military commander
ijaradar                   a revenue farmer
misl a band of Sikh warriors
chauth tax levied by the Marathas
kunbis Maratha peasant warriors
umara a high noble

2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the ____________________.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal __________________.
(c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subadari in _____________________.
(d) The founder of the Awadh nawabi was ______________________.

Answer

(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the Deccan.

(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration.

(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in 1724.

(d) The founder of the Awadh state was Sa’adat Khan.

3. State whether true or false:
(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.
(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
(d) Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.

Answer

(a) False 
(b) False 
(c) True 
(d) True

4. What were the offices held by Sa‘adat Khan?

Answer

Sa‘adat Khan held the combined offices of subadari, diwani and faujdari.

Page No: 154

Let’s discuss

5. Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?


Answer

(i) Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system to decrease the influence of Mughal in their provinces.
(ii) The jagirdars appointed at the time of Mughals were corrupt so he reduced the size of jagirs, and appointed his own loyal servants to vacant positions. 
(iii) They checked the accounts of jagirdars to prevent cheating and corruption.
(iv) The revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the Nawab’s court.

6. How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?

Answer

(i) The Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls under a number of able leaders.
(ii) The combined forces of Sikhs known as the grand army (dal khalsa) used to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions.
(iii) They offered protection to the cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent of the produce called rakhi.
(iv) Guru Gobind Singh had inspired the Khalsa with the belief that their destiny was to rule.

7. Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?

Answer

(i) Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan as expansion brought enormous resources.
(ii) The domination made to pay tribute as a way of accepting Maratha sovereignty.
(iii) Military campaigns also made other rulers hostile towards the Marathas.
(iv) The Marathas developed an effective administrative system by endless military campaigns.

8. What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?

Answer

Policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position:
(i) He already had full control over the political and financial administration of Deccan.
(ii) He gathered power in his hands by taking advantage of the turmoil in the Deccan and the competition amongst the court nobility.
(iii) He ruled quite independently without seeking any direction from Delhi or facing any interference.
(iv)  Gradually, he became the actual ruler of that region.

9. Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?

Answer

In today's world, merchants and bankers don't have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century. The idea of democracy changed the whole scenario. Everything from revenue share to the price in the market comes under a rule which is governed by the higher authorities chosen itself by people unlike in 18th century.

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