NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 2 Rights in the Indian Constitution Political Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 2 Rights in the Indian Constitution Political Science Indian Constitution at Work

Page No: 49

Exercises

1. Write true or false against each of these statements:

a) A Bill of Rights lays down the rights enjoyed by the people of a country.
► True

b) A Bill of Rights protects the liberties of an individual.
► True

c) Every country of the world has a Bill of Rights.
► False

d) The Constitution guarantees remedy against violation of Rights.
► True

2. Which of the following is the best description of Fundamental Rights?
a) All the rights an individual should have.
b) All the rights given to citizens by law.
c) The rights given and protected by the Constitution.
d) The rights given by the Constitution that cannot ever be restricted.
► c) The rights given and protected by the Constitution.

3. Read the following situations. Which Fundamental Right is being used or violated in each case and how?

a) Overweight male cabin crew are allowed to get promotion in the national airlines but their women colleagues who gain weight are penalised.
► Right to equality is violated because discrimination made between sex in employment.

b) A director makes a documentary film that criticises the policies of the government.
► Freedom of speech and expression is used because the documentary reflect director's opinion about government.

c) People displaced by a big dam take out a rally demanding rehabilitation.
► Freedom to assemble is used in this case as people can gather peacefully and without arms seeking their demand from government

d) Andhra society runs Telugu medium schools outside Andhra Pradesh.
► Cultural and educational rights used in this case because a linguistic can set up their own educational institutions to preserve and develop their own culture.

4. Which of the following is a correct interpretation of the Cultural and Educational Rights?
a) Only children belonging to the minority group that has opened educational institution can study there.
b) Government schools must ensure that children of the minority group will be introduced to their belief and culture.
c) Linguistic and religious minorities can open schools for their children and keep it reserved for them.
d) Linguistic and religious minorities can demand that their children must not study in any educational institution except those managed by their own community.
► b) Government schools must ensure that children of the minority group will be introduced to their belief and culture.

Page No: 50

5. Which of the following is a violation of Fundamental Rights and why?
a) Not paying minimum wages
b) Banning of a book
c) Banning of loudspeakers after 9 pm.
d) Making a speech

Answer

a) Not paying minimum wages is a form of exploitation.
b) Banning of a book is violation of freedom of speech and expression.

6. An activist working among the poor says that the poor don’t need Fundamental Rights. What they need are Directive Principles to be made legally binding. Do you agree with this? Give your reasons.

Answer

No, I don't agree with this as Fundamental rights are basic rights a person must have. These rights are given to people of all sections of society. The government may improve the conditions of poor through the Directive Principles but Fundamental rights should not taken as it protect the rights of individuals. If poor people think that implemented policies of the government harming them then they must have right to protest against it.

7. Several reports show that caste groups previously associated with scavenging are forced to continue in this job. Those in positions of authority refuse to give them any other job. Their children are discouraged from pursuing education. Which of their Fundamental Rights are being violated in this instance?

Answer

• Right against exploitation is violated because certain caste groups are forced to continue the same job.

• Right to Freedom is violated as it grant people to practise any profession but in this instance authority refused to give certain groups any other job. Also, Right to Freedom provide right to education which is also denied in this instance as children are discouraged from pursuing education.

8. A petition by a human rights group drew attention of the court to the condition of starvation and hunger in the country. Over five crore tonnes of food grains was stored in the godowns of the Food Corporation of India. Research shows that a large number of ration cardholders do not know about the quantity of food grains they can purchase from fair price shops. It requested the court to order the government to improve its public distribution system.
a. Which different rights does this case involve? How are these rights interlinked?
b. Should these rights form part of the right to life?

Answer

a. The different rights this case involve are:
• Right to speech and expression
• Right to constitutional remedy
These rights are interlinked as freedom of speech provides the basis for constitutional remedies.

b. Yes, these rights form part of the right to life as they are essential for the livelihood of people.

9. Read the statement by Somnath Lahiri in the Constitutent Assembly quoted in this chapter. Do you agree with him? If yes, give instances to prove it. If not, give arguments against his position.

Answer

Yes, the given statement by Somnath Lahiri in the Constitutent Assembly. The minimum rights have been conceded and are almost invariably followed by a proviso. Many instances of this are:

• Everyone is free to choose a religion and practice that religion but government can impose restrictions on the practice of freedom of religion in order to protect public order, morality and health.

• Freedom to assemble is to be exercised peacefully and without arms but government may impose restrictions in certain areas declaring the assembly of five or more persons as unlawful.

• Right to personal liberty states that no one can be arrested without being told the grounds for such an arrest but there is proviso of preventive detention according to which if the government feels that a person can be a threat to law and order or to the peace and security of the nation, it can detain or arrest that person.

10. Which of the Fundamental Rights is in your opinion the most important right? Summarise its provisions and give arguments to show why it is most important.

Answer

According to my opinion, Right to equality is the most important right. Its various provisions are:

• Equality before law: All people are equal in the eyes of law and will be tried by the same law and will be given the same punishment for same crime.

• Prohibition of discrimination: It provides for equal access to public places like shops, hotels, places of entertainment, wells, bathing ghats and places of worship. There cannot be any discrimination on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.

• Equality of opportunity in public employment: There should not be discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, and place of birth or any of them in matters of public employment. However, state shall reserve some seats in public employment for backward sections for their improvement.

• Abolition of Untouchability: The practice of untouchability is one of the crudest manifestations of inequality which has been abolished under the right to equality.

• Abolition of titles: It also provides that the state shall confer no title on a person except those who excel themselves in military or academic field.

These rights grant us the basic and very important right equality. This right ensures that every individual of society has the opportunity to reach his full potential. It also prevents any section of a society from dominating other sections. It strives to make India a true democracy by ensuring a sense of equality of dignity and status among all its citizens.

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