NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 3 Equality

NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 2 Equality Political Science

Page No: 51

Exercises

1. Some people argue that inequality is natural while others maintain that it is equality which is natural and the inequalities which we notice around us are created by society. Which view do you support? Give reasons.

Answer

Inequality is natural because:
• People are not equal by birth as they differ in traits, ability and talents.
• Human beings differ physically, mentally and intellectual strengths.
• There should be a division of work in society as all people can't do same work to be equal.

2. There is a view that absolute economic equality is neither possible nor desirable. It is argued that the most a society can do is to try and reduce the gaps between the richest and poorest members of society. Do you agree?

Answer

Yes, I agree with the statement that absolute economic equality is neither possible nor desirable. The most a society can do is to try and reduce the gaps between the richest and poorest members of society. Each person plays a different role in society according to their capability. There are different ranks in the society according to the work served by the person and the rewards are equivalent to the work. Therefore, absolute economic equality cannot be possible. The only thing that a society can do is provide equal opportunity to all by providing basic services such as health education etc. irrespective of economic background.

3. Match the following concepts with appropriate instances:
(a) Affirmative action - (i) Every adult citizen has a right to vote
(b) Equality of opportunity - (ii) Banks offer higher rate of interest to senior citizen
(c) Equal Rights - (iii) Every child should get free education

Answer

(a) Affirmative action - (ii) Banks offer higher rate of interest to senior citizen
(b) Equality of opportunity - (iii) Every child should get free education
(c) Equal Rights - (i) Every adult citizen has a right to vote

4. A government report on farmers' problems says that small and marginal farmers cannot get good prices from the market. It recommends that the government should intervene to ensure a better price but only for small and marginal farmers. Is this recommendation consistent with the principle of equality?

Answer

Yes, the government report recommendation consistent with the principle of equality because in this case only small and marginal farmers are affected as they do not have sufficient resources and knowledge about the prices of crops in the market.

5. Which of the following violate the principles of equality and why?

(a) Every child in class will read the text of the play by turn.
► No, there is no violation of equality as every child is getting an opportunity to read text.

(b) The Government of Canada encouraged white Europeans to migrate to Canada from the end of the Second World War till 1960.
► Yes, this is a violation of equality as white Europeans were encouraged over coloured people on the basis of their colour differences.

(c) There is a separate railway reservation counter for the senior citizens.
► No, there is no violation of equality as they have special needs and requirements.    

(d) Access to some forest areas is reserved for certain tribal communities.
► No, there is no violation of equality as this is done to protects their livelihood rights and culture.

6. Here are some arguments in favour of the right to vote for women. Which of these are consistent with the idea of equality? Give reasons.

(a) Women are our mothers. We shall not disrespect our mothers by denying them the right to vote.
► No, this argument is not based on the idea of equality but based on our emotions.

(b) Decisions of the government affect women as well as men, therefore they also should have a say in choosing the rulers.
► Yes, this argument is consistent with the idea of equality as it is based on decision making which affect the both men and women.

(c) Not granting women the right to vote will cause disharmony in the family.
► No, this argument is not consistent with the idea of equality as giving right to vote has no connection with the family.

(d) Women constitute half of humanity. You cannot subjugate them for long by denying them the right to vote.
► Yes, this argument is consistent with the idea of equality as it is based on rational thinking. The women constitute half population therefore given equal importance and opportunity to cast their vote.

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