#### NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 3 Presentation of Data Statistics of Economics

Exercises

Page No: 56

1. Bar diagram is a
(i) one-dimensional diagram
(ii) two-dimensional diagram
(iii) diagram with no dimension
(iv) none of the above
► (i) one-dimensional diagram

2. Data represented through a histogram can help in finding graphically the
(i) mean
(ii) mode
(iii) median
(iv) all the above
► (ii) mode

3. Ogives can be helpful in locating graphically the
(i) mode
(ii) mean
(iii) median
(iv) none of the above
► (iii) median

4. Data represented through arithmetic line graph help in understanding
(i) long-term trend
(ii) cyclicity in data
(iii) seasonality in data
(iv) all the above
► (i) long-term trend

5. Width of bars in a bar diagram need not be equal (True/False).
► False. Width of bars in a bar diagram need to be equal.

6. Width of rectangles in a histogram should essentially be equal (True/False).
► False. Width of rectangles in a histogram may or may not be equal.

7. Histogram can only be formed with continuous classification of data (True/False).
► True

Page No: 57

8. Histogram and column diagram are the same method of presentation of data (True/False).
► False. Histogram and column diagram are the different method of presentation of data.

9. Mode of a frequency distribution can be known graphically with the help of histogram (True/False).
► True

10. Median of a frequency distribution cannot be known from the ogives (True/False).
► False. Median of a frequency distribution can be known from the ogives.

11. What kinds of diagrams are more effective in representing the following?
(i) Monthly rainfall in a year
(ii) Composition of the population of Delhi by religion
(iii) Components of cost in a factory

(i) Monthly rainfall in a year - simple bar diagram as only one variable i.e. monthly rainfall is to be present and compared visually.

(ii) Composition of the population of Delhi by religion - Simple bar diagram Plotting different religion on the x-axis and the number of people on the y-axis, one can easily compare the number of the population religion-wise.

(iii) Components of cost in a factory - Pie chart as entire circle represents the total cost and various components of costsare shown by different portions of the circle.

12. Suppose you want to emphasise the increase in the share of urban non-workers and lower level of urbanisation in India as shown in Example 4.2. How would you do it in the tabular form?

 Urban non workers Rural Non Workers Total Non workers 19 crores 42 crores 62 crores

The number of rural non-workers is greater than urban non-workers. The higher number of rural non-workers indicates lower level of urbanisation in India according to 2001 Census data.

13. How does the procedure of drawing a histogram differ when class intervals are unequal in comparison to equal class intervals in a frequency table?

When the class intervals are equal then by normal method we can make histogram which has equal width of rectangle. When the class intervals are unequal, heights of rectangles are to be adjusted to yield comparable measurements by using frequency density (class frequency divided by width of the class interval) instead of absolute frequency.

14. The Indian Sugar Mills Association reported that, 'Sugar production during the first fortnight of December 2001 was about 3,87,000 tonnes, as against 3,78,000 tonnes during the same fortnight last year (2000). The off-take of sugar from factories during the first fortnight of December 2001 was 2,83,000 tonnes for internal consumption and 41,000 tonnes for exports as against 1,54,000 tonnes for internal consumption and nil for exports during the same fortnight last season.'
(i) Present the data in tabular form.
(ii) Suppose you were to present these data in diagrammatic form which of the diagrams would you use and why?
(iii) Present these data diagrammatically.

(i)
 Sugar Production in India Date Total Production (tonnes) Internal Consumption (tonnes) Export of sugar (tonnes) December, 2000 3,78,000 1,54,000 - December, 2000 3,27,000 2,83,000 41,000

(ii) To present these data in diagrammatic form we can use multiple bar diagram because these are effective in comparing two or more sets of data.

(iii) 15. The following table shows the estimated sectoral real growth rates (percentage change over the previous year) in GDP at factor cost.
Represent the data as multiple time series graphs. 