Study Material of Julius Caesar (Summary, Character Sketch and Word Meanings)

Summary of the Chapter

Study Material and Summary of Julius Caesar NCERT Class 10th

Caesar wanders about in his night-gown and is kept awake by Calpurnia’s nightmares. She called out in her sleep about supernatural omens that spelled disaster. Calpurnia believes that such bad omens are a premonition of evil and some harm would befall Caesar. Caesar rebuffs her, refusing to give in to fear. Caesar deems the signs to apply to the world in general and refuses to believe they bore ill for him personally. Finally, Calpurnia prevails upon Caesar to stay at home. Decius Brutus jeopardizes Calpurnia’s plan and forces Caesar to go to the Senate, where the senators were waiting to offer a crown to him. On his way, Caesar rejects the petition of Cimber to revoke the orders for his brother’s banishment. This proves to be the last nail in his coffin. Immediately afterwards, Casca and other senators along with Brutus stab Caesar. Caesar’s last words are, “Et tu Brute?”

The conspirators turn to the plebians and start shouting slogans of “Liberty, Freedom and Enfranchisement” as if they were safeguarding the rights of all the Romans.

Mark Antony is too dumbstruck to see Caesar’s dead body in a pool of blood, but tactfully restrains himself from making any statements. He requests Brutus for allowing him to make a funeral speech. Dismissing Cassius’ objection, Brutus allows him but only after he has himself addressed the plebians. Antony uses his excellent oratorical skills very cleverly and succeeds in inciting the mob to mutiny and wreck havoc against the conspirators. Brutus and others have to flee for their lives and Octavious Caesar arrives to clinch the victory for Antony and save Caesar’s honour.

Terms and Meanings from the Poem

• Stood on ceremonies - paid much attention to omens and forecasts
• Right form of war - correct battle order
• Drizzled - shower
• Hurtled – clashed
• Beyond all use - most unnatural
• Blaze - outburst
• Valiant - brave
• Necessary- inevitable
• In very happy time- at the right moment
• Graybeards- old men (contemptuously dismissing the senators)
• Lusty –strong
• Portents - omen
• Great men shall press For tinctures, stains, relics and cognizance - great men shall gather around Caesar and stain their handkerchiefs in his blood which will serve as colours added to a coat of arms, an object of reverence, mementos and a badge of service
• Expounded - explained
• That every like is not the same, O Caesar, The heart of Brutus yearns to think upon - Brutus's heart grieves when he thinks that being like a friend is not the same as being a friend
• Puissant – powerful
• Couchings and these lowly courtesies- bowing and bending
• Pre-ordinance- an order that has existed from earlier times
• First decree- law passed earlier
• I could pray to move - pray to others to change their minds
• Resting – permanent
• Et tu, Brute - even you, Brutus
• Spoils - trophies of war.
• Little measure - a small piece of ground on which your body lies
• Bear me hard - bear a grudge against me
• Reek – stench
• Master – powerful
• In strength of malice - which may appear to be hostile
• Dignities – honours
• Conceit – consider
• Corse – corpse
• Modesty – understatement
• Compact – agreement
• Good regard - serious consideration
• Order- ceremony
• Protest- announce
• Devise of - think of
• Light – fall
• Cumber – burden
• Custom of fell deeds - terrible deeds shall become so familiar
• Ate- Greek goddess of revenge
• My cause- the cause that I represent
• Believe me for mine honour- believe me because you know I am honourable
• Censure- judge
• Rude- uncivilized
• Do to Brutus- you may assassinate me if I become ambitious
• Question- reasons for
• Enrolled- recorded
• Enforced- emphasized
• The commonwealth - the free republic
• Lover – friend
• Parts- qualities
• Lupercal- the feast of the god Lupercus. Lupercus was the protector of flocks and herds, the god of fertility
• Disprove- contradict
• Stood against - overcome the opposition of.
• Poor- humble
• Wrong the dead - be unjust to Caesar, who has been assassinated, by calling him ambitious
• To wrong myself - by not speaking what I know
• You - by allowing you to be deceived by Brutus
• Napkins - handkerchiefs
• Meet - proper
• Mantle - cloak
• Nervii - the most war-like of the Gallic tribes, defeated by Caesar in 57 B.C.
• Envious - malicious
• Ingratitude - the blow struck by Brutus' ingratitude
• Which all the while ran blood - which was covered with Caesar's blood
• Flourish'd – triumphed
• Food of mutiny- wave of violence
• Wit - intelligence
• Worth - authority
• Action - gestures
• Utterance - eloquence
• Right on - directly
• Wherein - in what way
• Drachmas- silver coins
• Royal- generous
• Afoot- started

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