NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 2 Physical Features of India Geography Social Studies (S.St)

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Page No: 11

1. The names of the glaciers and passes that lie in Great Himalayas


Glaciers in the Great Himalayas — Gangotri, Chaturangi, Bhagirathi, Kharak, Satopanth, Kamet, Milam and Pindari.
Passes in the Great Himalayas — Karakoram pass, Shipkila pass, Nathula, Bomdila pass.

2. The  name of  the states where highest peaks are located.


Mountain peaks - States
Kanchenjunga - Sikkim
Nanga Parbat - Jammu and Kashmir
Nanda Devi - Uttarakhand
Kamet - Uttarakhand
Namcha Barwa - Assam

Page No: 15


1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :

(i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as
(a) Coast
(b) Island 
(c) Peninsula 
(d) None of the above.
► (c) Peninsula

(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundaries with Myanmar
are collectively called :
(a) Himachal
(b) Uttaranchal 
(c) Purvachal 
(d) None of the above
► (c) Purvachal

(iii) The western coastal strip south of Goa is referred to as
(a) Coromandel
(b) Konkan 
(c) Kannad
(d) Northern Circar
► (c) Kannad

(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi 
(b) Kanchenjunga 
(c) Mahendragiri 
(d) Khasi
► (c) Mahendragiri

2. Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) What are tectonic plates?
(ii) Which continents of today were parts of the Gondwana land?
(iii) What is bhabar?
(iv) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
(v) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
(vi) Name the island group of India having coral origin.


(i) Large fragments of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle separated due to the convectional currents are called tectonic plates.

(ii) South America, South Africa, part of Asia (India, Arabia, Malaya), Australia and Antarctica continents were parts of the Gondwana land.

(iii) The Bhabar is that narrow belt of the plain which is covered with pebbles and lies along the foothills of the Shiwaliks from the Indus to the Tista.

(iv) The Great or the Inner Himalayas or the Himadri, the Middle Himalayas or the Himachal, and the Outer Himalayas or the Shivaliks.

(v) The Malwa plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhya Ranges.

(vi) Lakshadweep Islands is the island group of India having coral origin.

Page No: 16

3. Distinguish between
(i) Converging and Diverging Tectonic Plates.
(ii) Bhangar and Khadar
(iii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats


Converging Tectonic Plates
Diverging Tectonic Plates
When tectonic plates move towards each other, they are called converging plates. When tectonic plates move away from each other, they are called diverging plates.
They collide or crumble or one of them slides under the other while moving towards each other. They do not collide or crumble while moving away from each other.
Converging plates cause folds. Diverging plates cause fractures in the crust.

These are the older alluvium or old soil and form the largest part of the Northern Plains. The newer and younger deposits of the flood plains. Renewed every Year.
Presents a terrace like feature. Contains calcerous deposits locally known as Kankar.
Less fertile More fertile

Western Ghats
Eastern Ghats
Mark the western edge of the Deccan Plateau Mark the eastern edge of the Deccan Plateau
Continuous, can be crossed through the passes only. Discontinuous, irregular and dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
Higher; average elevation is 900−1600 meters Lower; average elevation is 600 meters
It experiences orographic rain mostly in summer due to the summer monsoons. The climate is hot and moist. It receives rain mostly in winter through North-eastern monsoon. However, here the rain is lesser than the western strip.
Soil is highly fertile. Rice, spices, rubber and fruits like coconuts, cashew nuts etc. are grown Soil is not as fertile as western ghats. Rice, ground nuts, cotton, tobacco, coconuts etc. are grown

4. Describe how the Himalayas were formed.


According to the Theory of Plate Tectonics, the Earth's crust was initially a single, giant super-continent called Pangea. Gradually, Pangea began to split into a number of pieces due to convectional currents and formed Angaraland and Gondwanaland. Angaraland is the Eurasian land mass and Gondwanaland included India, Australia, S. Africa and S. America as one single land mass. The Indo-Australian plate separated from the Gondwana land due to convectional currents and drifted towards north. Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosyncline known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.

5. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular Plateau.


The major physiography divisions of India are :
(i) The Himalayan Mountains
(ii) The Northern Plains
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau
(iv) The Indian Desert
(v) The Coastal Plains
(vi) The Islands

The Himalayan Region
The Peninsular Plateau
Young fold mountains made from the uplift of the strata formed by the sedimentary rocks. Ancient landmass created after splitting of Gondwanaland.
Consists of the loftiest mountains and deep valleys Consists of broad and shallow valleys, and rounded hills
Composed of sedimentary rocks. Composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
It is the origin of perennial rivers. It has rainfed, seasonal rivers.
From the point of view of geology, this region forms an unstable zone This region forms a stable zone

6. Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.


The northern plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems, namely the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. This plain is formed of alluvial soil which is suitable for agriculture. It spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq. km. The plain is a densely populated physiographic division. The Northern Plain is broadly divided into three sections, Punjab Plains, Ganga Plains and Brahpmputra plains. According to the variations in relief features, the Northern plains can be divided into four regions. Bhabar, a narrow belt of pebbles which lie at the foot of Shivaliks. Terai, lie next to Bhabar which a wet and marshy area with wildlife and forests. Bhangar is made up of older alluvium plain which rises above the level of the flood plains. Khadar is a younger alluvium of the flood plains.

7. Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert
(ii) The Central Highlands
(iii) The Island groups of India


(i) The Indian desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills. It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes called barchans. This region receives very low rainfall below 150 mm per year. It has arid climate with low vegetation cover. Streams appear during the rainy season. Soon after they disappear into the sand as they do not have enough water to reach the sea. Luni is the only large river in this region.

(ii) The part of the peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada River covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands. The Vindhyan range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the south and the Aravali range on the northwest. The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and Ken is from southwest to northeast, thus indicating the slope. The Central Highlands are wider in the west but narrower in the east.  The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. The Chotanagpur plateau marks the further eastward extension, drained by the Damodar River.

(iii) India has two main island groups, namely Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar island. The Lakshadweep consists of many small islands located opposite the Kerala coast in the Arabian Sea. The islands of this group are formed of coral deposits. It covers small area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, on the other hand, are larger in size. They are more in number and more widely scattered. These islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.

Map Skills

On an outline map of India show the following.
(i)Mountain and hill ranges – the Karakoram, the Zaskar, the Patkai Bum, the Jaintia, the Vindhya range, the Aravali, and the Cardamom hills.
(ii) Peaks – K2, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat and the Anai Mudi.
(iii) Plateaus, Chotanagpur and Malwa
(iv) The Indian Desert, Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands



Locate the peaks, passes, ranges, plateaus, hills, and duns hidden in the puzzle.Try to find where these features are located. You may start your search horizontally, vertically or diagonally.






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