NCERT Solutions for Class 6th: Ch 9 Urban Livelihoods Social and Political Life

Page No:84


1. Read and discuss the following description of the living conditions of workers who come to the labour chowk. 
Most workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accommodation and so sleep on pavements near the chowk, or they pay Rs 6 a night for a bed at a nearby night shelter run by the Municipal Corporation. To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function as banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers leave their tools at these shops for the night for safekeeping, and pass on any extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money safely and also offer loans to labourers in need.
Source: Aman Sethi, Hindu On-line


Living condition of workers who came to the labour chowk:
(i) Workers are living in the harsh condition and suffering from lack of basic facilities and security.
(ii) The workers at labour chowk find out regular jobs but do not have permanent jobs.
(iii) They do not have permanent shelter so sleep on pavements or in paid shelter of Municipal corporation.
(iv) The protection of their money and tools are provided by the local tea and cigarettes shops in an unorganised manner.
(v) Labourers also took loans from these shops.

Page No: 85

2. Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different:
Name Place of workEarnings Security of workBenefits received Work on
their own or

Rs 100 a day


Work on their

No security

Sudha CompanyRs 30,000 p.m.


Name Place of workEarnings Security of workBenefits received Work on
their own or
Cycle-Rickshaw PullerRs 100 a day No SecurityNo benefits received Work on their
Harpreet,Vandana Garments showroomGood earning Yes, licence to do businessGrowth in business Work on their
Nirmala Garment FactoryRs 80 a day for eight hours and Rs 40 extra for working late. No securityRs 40 for overtime work Employed
Sudha CompanyRs 30,000 p.m. SecuredMedical facilities, Paid holidays, Saving for old age and many benefits. Employed

3. In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.


Permanent Job Regular Job
Job Security No job security
Fixed working hour No fixed working hour
Fixed payments No fixed payments
Paid holidays and leave No paid holidays and leave
Extra benefits No extra benefits

4. What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?


Sudha get different benefits along with her salary:
(i) Savings for old age: A part of her salary is kept in fund with government on which she gets interest and retirement.
(ii) Holidays: She doesn't have to work on Sundays and national holidays. She also get some annual leave.
(iii) Medical facilities: She get paid leave for illness and free treatment. Her family get paid medical facilities up to certain amount by the company.
(iv) Job security: She also have the permanent job and security of it.

5. Fill in the following table to show the services provided by people in the markets which you visit frequently.
  Name of the shop or office    Nature of the service provided 


Name of the shop or office Nature of the service provided
ABC Kirana Store Provide rations and daily needs items.
Siffy net connection Provide internet facility to home.
Zee cable operators Dish and cable TV supply
Amul Milk Shop Home delivery of milk and its products

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